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Biodiversity Journal 2018, 9 (2): 105-168

  • Biodiversity Journal, 9 (2): 105-106
    Michele Bellavista
    Taxonomy and biology of the African Goliathini Krikken, 1984 (Coleoptera Cetoniidae)
  • Biodiversity Journal, 9 (2): 107-114

    Viviana Giangreco, Claudio Provito, Luca Sineo, Tiziana Lupo, Floriana Bonanno & Stefano Reale
    Identification of subspecies and parentage relationship by means of DNA fingerprinting in two exemplary of Pan troglodytes (Blumenbach, 1775) (Mammalia Hominidae)

    Four chimpanzee subspecies (Mammalia Hominidae) are commonly recognised: the Western Chimpanzee, P. troglodytes verus (Schwarz, 1934), the Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee, P. troglodytes ellioti, the Central Chimpanzee, P. troglodytes troglodytes (Blumenbach, 1799), and the Eastern Chimpanzee, P. troglodytes schweinfurthii (Giglioli, 1872). Recent studies on mitochondrial DNA show the incorporation of P. troglodytes schweinfurthii in P. troglodytes troglodytes, suggesting the existence of only two subspecies: P. troglodytes troglodytes in Central and Eastern Africa and P. troglodytes verus; P. troglodytes ellioti in West Africa. The aim of the present study is twofold: first, to identify the correct subspecies of two chimpanzee samples collected in a Biopark structure in Carini (Sicily, Italy), and second, to verify whether there was a kinship relationship between the two samples through techniques such as DNA barcoding and microsatellite analysis. DNA was extracted from apes’ buccal swabs, the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene was amplified using universal primers, then purified and injected into capillary electrophoresis Genetic Analyzer ABI 3130 for sequencing. The sequence was searched on the NCBI Blast database. In addiction, the microsatellite analysis was performed on the same machine for parentage detection among samples, and data were analyzed with GenMapper software. Our results show that both samples were P. troglodytes troglodytes, while the analysis of the microsatellite results in an unclear relationship between two chimpanzee samples.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 9 (2): 115-120

    Viviana Giangreco, Ignazio Sammarco, Tiziana Lupo, Sergio Migliore & Stefano Reale
    Molecular techniques employed to trace the Sicilian ovines

    Genotyping strategies are aimed at defining the genetic profile of individuals through the identification of STRs sequences. The applied methodologies are able to ensure the traceability of the meat along the production chains and the control of the correct animal sampling on the farms. However, the discriminative capacity of alleles is studied through the establishment of the allelic frequency in the ovine population of the territory. This may depend on factors such as race, degree of inbreeding, and local selections. In the research of genetic identity in particular, it is exploited that the probability that two different individuals possess the same genetic pattern is equal to the frequency of that genotype in the population under examination and that the frequency of a genotype characterized by more loci is equal to the product of the frequencies of each single genotype (locus) observed. Therefore, we set the task of fixing and tabulating the data of the genetic profiles of the autochthonous breeds that can then be exploited for the traceability investigations of the animals, according to the application of specific algorithms. In practice, we aim to establish and create the starting point for the interpretation of all the genetic data obtained from the analysis of the Sicilian ovine population, whatever the application to do with it. The ultimate goal of this work is the elaboration of allelic panels typical of the sheep populations that represent the starting point for all genetic tests of forensic investigations. In fact, the discovery of particular alleles identify the tabulated frequency representing the genetic variability distribuited in the region. This has the effect of minimizing the identification errors that are spread in the animal population. We can state that from the analysis of allele frequencies developed by Genalex we can obtain expected heterozygosity data according to Hardy-Weinberg law and the obtained heterozygosity data typical for native breeds. All the allele frequencies were employed to create a database containing all the genotypes. These data were useful in the forensic field for the attribution of the kinships in the sheep.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 9 (2): 121-126

    Boubaiou Abla, Ali Tahar & Lyamine Mezedjri
    Comparative Biometrics of a Teleost Fish, Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) (Perciformes Sparidae) of the Algerian coast lines

    Algeria is a country characterized by its diversified ichthyological fauna of economic and ecological importance, which deserves to be valorized by a scientific study. Due to this, our study is dedicated to the comparative biometry of the Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) (Perciformes Sparidae), between seven sites located on the Algerian coastline from north-east to north-west: El-kalla, Annaba, Skikda, Collo, Jijel, Algiers, Mostaganem. This study is made due to the total absence of reliable and exploitable information concerning the morphometric and meristic characteristics of this Algerian coast fish. The comparative study was carried out using thirty-six morphometric and meristic variables. The analytical approach carried out shows that environment factors have an influence and effect, not only on the diversity of living beings, but on the morphological variation in the same species. In addition, the statistical approach allowed a spatiotemporal evaluation of the biometry of the B. boops from the seven sites. As a first step, all the univariate statistical analyzes carried out, suggest significant differences between the seven sites, as well as a possible sexual dimorphism. Also, the analysis of variance at a fixed model classification criterion shows, with respect to the site factor, very significant to very highly significant differences between the seven sites for thirty variables out of thirty-six; for the sex factor, there are no significant differences for thirty-two variables out of thirty-six. Other models have been studied. Thus, in general, the general linear model MANOVA confirms the results obtained by the ANOVA.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 9 (2): 127-130

    Irina V. Maslova, Elvira E. Rodina, Yikweon Jang & Amaël Borzée
    Breeding populations of Bombina orientalis Boulenger, 1890 (Amphibia Anura Bombinatoridae) in a degraded urban habitat in Vladivostok, Russia

    Most amphibian species are declining, and while the causes of such decline are multiple, environmental pollution is one of the most important. Bombina orientalis Boulenger, 1890 (Amphibia Anura Bombinatoridae), is known to be sensitive to pollution. However, we report here that the species breeds in highly polluted water within the city of Vladivostok, Russia. The species was found at the same site for two consecutive years, although in lower numbers in the second year. The resilience of B. orientalis to pollution is not consistent with other populations within the range of the species, and is therefore important in the frame of conservation.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 9 (2): 131-134

    Maria Rita Buscemi, Delia Gambino, Giulia Caracappa, Viviana Giangreco & Stefano Reale
    Research and identification of Staphylococcus Pasteur, 1880 (Bacillales Staphylococcaceae), potentially zoonotic, isolated from Sicilian dogs

    The uncontrolled abuse of antibiotics used in veterinary medicine, has led to the development of some mechanisms of antibiotic-resistence in the bacteria. This event allows them to breed and increase in number inside a host organism. Staphylococcus spp. strains (Bacillales Staphylococcaceae) have been isolated from cutaneous swabs of dogs, have been identified through microbiological methodologies on a biochemical basis, and their sensitive profile to various antibiotics, commonly used in the veterinary domain and in human medicine, was valued. Other molecular and microbiological studies on these Staphylococcus spp. strains have also been carried.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 9 (2): 135-142

    Cesare Brizio
    Bioacoustic evidence of two uncommon crickets from SW Sardinia, including an analysis of the song of Brachytrupes megacephalus (Lefèvre, 1827) (Orthoptera Gryllidae) in the ultrasonic range

    Two elusive species of crickets, Natula averni (A. Costa, 1855) (Orthoptera Gryllidae Trigonidiinae), and Brachytrupes megacephalus (Lefèvre, 1827) (Orthoptera Gryllidae Gryllinae) are reported from SW Sardinia based on recordings with 96 kHz sample frequency. The song of the latter species, that was observed and photographed during song emission, is also recorded at a sample frequency of 250 kHz, revealing harmonic components up to 100 kHz and above.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 9 (2): 143-148

    Yaser Fatemi & Ruhallah Fatemi
    New data on the genus Luidia Forbes, 1839 (Asteroidea Luidiidae) from the gulf of Oman and first record of Luidia maculata Müller et Troschel, 1842 in this region

    As a part of the research program about echinoderms of the Gulf of Oman, Luidia maculata Müller et Troschel, 1842, and L. hardwicki Gray, 1840 (Asteroidea Luidiidae) were collected from the sandy shores of Chabahar Bay along the north part of the gulf during the period from 2015 to 2016. Here, L. maculata is recorded for the first time from the Gulf of Oman and Iranian waters. Luidia hardwicki has been previously reported from this area. Details concerning the identification and distribution range of these species are provided.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 9 (2): 149-166

    Longino Contoli Amante
    Is biodiversity aging? Heuristic questions on the taxonomic diversity in the Phanerozoic

    The trend of numerosity component of diversity was analysed from palaeontological data, according to various time intervals and taxonomical ranks. Taxa numerosity of lower (with respect to family), with a nearly exponential increase, vs. higher ranks (from order to macrotaxon), with mainly a logarithmic trend, confirms to follow quite different patterns over time. This dataset seems to fit with a more assortative hypothesis, for higher taxa and a more divisive one for lower taxa. Then, a model was built to quantify the relative weight, over time, of the above hypothetical evolutionary components of various taxa ranks; such ranks were identified, in a palaeontological approach, by the maximum number of recorded taxa or, in a phyletic approach, by the time duration based on genetic data. The trends obtained by this model agree with observed records and the hypothesis, to be verified, of a quite different evolutionary origin of macro- (phylum, class, order ranks) and micro-taxa (genus and species), during the transition between two main time phases: the first (evidently more assortative), mainly linked to the lateral sharing of characters, the second (evidently more divisive), mainly influenced by the ever growing morpho-physio-genetic isolation even for the protection of complex adaptations, as in the present, “modern species”.