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Biodiversity Journal 2021, 12 (3): 537-762

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0537-0538
    Aldo Boglia
    Antedon mediterranea (Lamark, 1816) (Echinodermata Crinoidea)
  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0539-0560

    Pierpaolo Rapuzzi, Gianfranco Sama, Sadreddin Tusun, Hüseyin Cebeci, Hüseyin Özdikmen, Daniele Baiocchi, Gianluca Magnani, Ivan Rapuzzi & Musa Geçit
    The longhorn beetles (Coleptera Cerambycidae) of Mardin province (Turkey) with the description of two new species and one new subspecies

    In this paper we provide a check-list of the Coleoptera Cerambycidae of Mardin province (South-eastern Turkey); describe two new species, Agapanthia mardinensis Rapuzzi n. sp. and Pygoptosia darzerkensis Rapuzzi n. sp. and one new subspecies, Phytoecia (Neomusaria) mesopotamica barbarae Rapuzzi n. ssp. Additionally, three species and one subspecies are recorded for the first time for the Turkish Fauna. Information obtained from literature is listed, as well as the results of researches conducted in the area by the authors during several entomological expeditions. Additional data of specimens preserved in several European Museums is given.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0561-0566

    Ahlem Meriem, Lina Aitaider, Bahia Doumanddji-Mitiche & Abderrahmane Chebli
    First record of the feather-legged fly Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius, 1781) (Diptera Tachinidae) a parasitoid of the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hemiptera Pentatomidae) in Algeria

    Between 2018 and 2019 we conducted a comprehensive study on the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hemiptera Pentatomidae) for the first time in Algeria. On August 2019 specimens of the feather-legged fly Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius, 1781) (Diptera Tachinidae) were detected for the first time from reared parasitized adults of Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) which were sampled from tomato crop in an agricultural region called Ouled Hadedj in the eastern part of Mitidja in Algeria. Trichopoda pennipes is an endoparasitoid of the stink bug Nezara viridula. This study provides the first record of this Nearctic tachinid fly and its genus in Algeria which can also be a very useful addition for biodiversity and for the geographical distribution of this species. Morphological description of the detected parasitoid species and Colored photographs of the parasitoid and parasitized host are provided.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0567-0572

    Samra Mohdeb, Samia Ouarab, Faiza Marniche & Fatiha Labedelli
    Entomofaunal diversity of Diptera in a semi arid region in the west of Algeria (Tiaret)

    The contribution to the study of the biodiversity of Diptera associated with the cultivated olive tree took place over a year from December 2018 to November 2019, in two stations located in the west of Algeria. The aim of this present work is to learn about the biodiversity of Diptera associated with the olive tree cultivated in the Tiaret region. Sampling frequency was on the order of one outing per month using the yellow plates and barber jars to collect the specimens. We identified 1124 individuals or 46 species belonging to 29 families. The Sciaridae family is the most representative in Ain Guesma station with a relative abundance AR% of 23%. While in the station of Oued lili the Chirinominidae family is the most captured, at 18.52%. The two stations present a great diversity of species (H ’= 3.58 Ain Guesma, H’ = 3.65 in Oued Lili). The equity of the species identified in this study is greater than or equal to 0.76.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0573-0583

    Imen Cherak, Abdelkrim Si Bachir , Lakhdar Cherak , Cherif Ghazi, Lotfi Loucif & Mahdi Sellami
    Diversity and distribution patterns of endophytic mycoflora of Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica Manetti) needles in Belezma biosphere reserve (Batna, Algeria)

    This study aims to assess the diversity and distribution of fungal mycoflora developing on Cedrus atlantica (Endl) G. Manetti ex Carrière needles in three sites in the Belezma National Park (Biosphere Reserve, Northeast - Algeria). Three sites were sampled according to a cedar decline gradient, these are the massifs of: Telmet (healthy site), Boumerzoug (moderately depressed) and Tougurt (decayed site). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) molecular analysis, allows identifying 19 endophytic mycotaxa. All the identified species have a weak occurrence frequency (less than 25%). In terms of specific richness, the moderately depressed site (Boumerzoug) homes the largest number of taxa (S = 17), followed by healthy site of Telmet (12 taxa), while the depressed site of Tougurt was the least populated (8 taxa). The hierarchical classification analysis (HCA) showed that the taxonomic composition of endophyte associations differs clearly from one site to another according to the cedar decline. The clustering representing healthy massif brings 2 species which are demanding phytoparasitic endophytes (Fusarium sp. and Xylaria sp.). The group associated to moderately depressed site hosts 7 taxa with a wide ecological valence, such as: Canariomyces notabilis, Canariomyces vonarxii, Chaetomium aegilopis, Coniolariella hispanica and Penicillium kubanicum. Then, mycoflora group noted in the decayed cedar includes 10 taxa, in particular, saprophytic mycotaxa relatively less demanding with a high ecological valence like: Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Alternaria arborescens, A. tenuissima and three species of Chaetomium genus. The mycotaxa distribution is related to the specific conditions of colonized trees. Taxa specific to healthy and decayed massifs would represent bio indicators of the phytosanitary and ecological conditions of colonized cedars.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0585-0588

    Brian Cunningham Aparicio & Iván Mulero Méndez
    First record of the potentially invasive Pinctada imbricata fucata (Gould, 1850) (Bivalvia Pteriidae) along the Mediterranean coasts of Spain

    The taxonomy of pearl oyster species Pinctada Röding, 1798 (Bivalvia Pteriidae) is difficult due to the intraspecific variability of their morphological characters, making them hard to distinguish. However, previous studies reported the existence of two different taxa of this genus in the Mediterranean Sea; Pinctada imbricata radiata (Leach, 1818) and Pinctada imbricata fucata (Gould, 1850). Pinctada imbricata radiata is one of the first lessepsian species to be reported and it is nowadays considered a well-stablished species in the Mediterranean basin. P. imbricata fucata is native to the Indo-Pacific Ocean and entered the basin only in recent time. The first time this species was found in the Mediterranean was in 2015 for Sicily (Italy). In the present work, the Pteriidae species Pinctada imbricata fucata is reported for the first time in the Mediterranean waters of south Spain. This finding enlarges the known distribution of this alien species to the western side of the basin.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0589-0624

    Ignazio Sparacio, Salvatore Surdo, Roberto Viviano, Fabio Liberto & Agatino Reitano
    Land molluscs from the Isola delle Femmine Nature Reserve (north-western Sicily, Italy) (Gastropoda Architaenioglossa Pulmonata)

    The results of a study on the fauna of land molluscs from Isola delle Femmine Nature Reserve (NW Sicily, Italy) (Gastropoda Architaenioglossa Pulmonata) are here described. In this small island 23 species have been found, 6 of which are Sicilian endemic taxa. Siciliaria leucophryna microinsularis n. ssp. endemic to the Isola delle Femmine (or Isola di Fuori) is described. For each species ecological, distributional data and information on their presence on this island are provided.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0625-0628

    André Schneider & Ivan Rapuzzi
    A new subspecies of Carabus (Imaibius) wittmerorum Heinertz, 1978 from Mahabanr Mountains, Khyber province, Swabi district, Pakistan (Coleoptera Carabidae)

    The description of a new subspecies of Carabus (Imaibius) wittmerorum Heinertz, 1978 (Coleoptera Carabidae) from Bir Gali (District Swabi, Province Khyber, Pakistan) is given.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0629-0633

    Salvatore Surdo, Ignazio Sparacio, Antonino Dentici & Roberto Viviano
    Little Egret Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1766) (Pelecaniformes Ardeidae) and Eurasian crag martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris (Scopoli, 1769) (Passeriformes Hirundidae), two new breeding species for the Egadi Islands (W-Sicily, Italy)

    For the first time, the nesting of Eurasian crag martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris (Scopoli, 1769) (Passeriformes Hirundinidae) and Little egret Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1766) (Pelecaniformes Ardeidae) in the Aegadian Islands (W-Sicily, Italy) is reported. Of particular interest is the nesting of the Little egret on the island of Maraone resulting in the first report for Sicily of a heronry on a marine island. Although this nesting environment has already been established in Sardinia, it should be emphasized that until now the establishment of a heronry has never been detected on an islet so far from the mainland.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0635-0653

    Mohammad Firoj Jaman, Abdur Razzaque Sarker, Md. Mahabub Alam, Mokhlesur Rahman, Fazle Rabbe, Md. Abu Sayeed Rana, Ashikur Rahman Shome & Md. Sakhawat Hossain
    Species diversity, distribution and habitat utilization of urban wildlife in a megacity of Bangladesh

    Urban environments harbour many species of wildlife. Such environments may provide a wide range of benefits, although these species could also face more threats in them than outside of the cities, without proper consideration. A comprehensive study of the wildlife in Dhaka, a megacity of Bangladesh, was conducted from September 2015 to November 2018 at eleven sites to estimate the extent of their presence. We collected data following transect line surveys for birds and mammals, and visual encounter surveys for herpetofauna. A total of 209 species belonging to 79 families of wildlife were recorded: 12 amphibians, 19 reptiles, 162 birds and 16 mammals. This study recorded a total of 13,805 individuals: 12,183 birds, 872 mammals, 605 amphibians, and 145 reptiles. In Shahbag site in total 3,039 individuals of wildlife were counted followed by Ramna (2,576), Uttara (2,108) and Mirpur (1,872). Seventeen species were shared between habitats and an average 33% of the total species were shared between sites (range 13–52%). Slightly more than half of the wildlife was recorded on trees, followed by grasslands and urban settlements. We identified some anthropogenic activities such as pollution, rapid construction work, random vehicle movements, using parks and gardens as a short passageway that may have a negative effect on urban wildlife distribution and survivability. Our baseline data on vertebrate wildlife diversity indicate that urban green patches in the study sites may contribute to maintain and conserve biodiversity in the megacities. We hope that the results of this baseline data on wildlife diversity will be valuable to urban decision makers for the development and implementation of more informed megacity master plans. Wildlife diversity in such areas can be significant and without proper planning, can be affected by unchecked human activities in urban settings.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0655-0662

    Haddad Fatma Zohra, Benaissa Noureddine, El-Hadj Zoubida, Temimi Yousra, Bekratou Djamel, Kallouche Mohamed Mustapha, Belkhoudja Moulay & Mouffok Salim
    Coastal dune vegetation: dynamic and influence of anthropogenic factors

    This study describes the vegetation dune systems status in relation to antroipogenic disturbance factors in the coastal stretch of the Madrague area in Algeria. This study was carried out during the spring and summer of 2018. Particular emphasis was given to flora composition by assessing their frequency and diversity. Vegetation sampling was carried out along twenty shore-perpendicular transects recording different data. The flora inventoried highlights a strong dominance of the Asteraceae family, which accounts for 24.32% of all inventoried species. Analysis of the biological spectrum shows the predominance of therophytes, with rate of 32.43%, indicating an average degradation whose origin is anthropogenic action. The IP disturbance index of our study area is about 51 %, it confirms a moderately strong degradation of the natural environment. Biogeographically, the vegetation of the study area is constituted by a heterogeneous set of elements of various origins dominated by the Mediterranean element. From the cartographic point of view, the study of satellite photos enabled us to confirm the degradation of the plant revetment by comparing the areas covered between 2003 and 2018. A notable diminution of this is reported, due to the man activity and his herds.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0663-0672

    Tires Hachemi & Hebbar Chafika
    The Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 (Bivalvia Mytilidae) a Bioindicator of Metallic Pollution on the Algerian West Coasts

    The current work aims to study the metallic contamination of two targeted sampling sites located near the main effluent discharge points on the Algerian coasts: the industrial Gulf of Arzew (Polluted Site: S1) and Oued Elma Kristel (Reference Site: S2), using a metallic pollution indicator biological species Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 (Bivalvia Mytilidae), collected at a depth of 2 to 3 m seasonally in 2016. Concentrations of metals and metallic indices of the trace elements (Lead, Zinc, Nickel, Iron and Copper) obtained in the soft tissues of the mussel are determined and related to the seasons and sampling sites of the current year. In site S1, the statistical study revealed significant contamination by Nickel (67.63–70.28, Iron (118.18–125.45 and Copper (6.11–6.62 in summer, Zinc (213.39- 255.33 in winter and Lead (7.55–8.78 in autumn. However, site S2 recorded high levels of Lead (8.36–37.63 and Zinc (67.03–405.37 during the year.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0673-0694

    Chennie L. Solania, Jerry T. Cuadrado, Adam Roy V. Galolo & Eve F. Gamalinda
    Species Richness and Community Structure of Amphibians and Reptiles in Andanan Watershed Forest Reserve, Caraga Region, Philippines

    The Andanan watershed is a protected natural forest reserve of the Philippines located in the Municipality of Sibagat and City of Bayugan, Caraga Region. This study conducted an extensive opportunistic survey that yielded 49 species of herpetofauna (22 frogs, 5 agamids, 4 gekkonid lizards, 7 skinks, one varanid, 9 snakes, and a freshwater turtle), accounting for 67.35% endemicity in the area. Five habitat types were recorded with a gamma diversity of H’=3.093. The secondary growth forest was statistically significant at P<0.0001 and gained the highest in species diversity (H’=2.654). The old-growth forest harbored a distinct species composition with some species not recorded in other habitat types. Six of the endemic amphibians were associated with high canopy cover, while edible amphibians were associated with open and cleared areas. Eleven out of 19 endemic reptiles were often observed in areas with high air temperature, while most of the snakes were observed in old forest stands. The secondary growth forest's structural complexity provides habitat to many herpetofauna, but the uniqueness of the old-growth forest also supports habitat to pristine forest specialists. The results of habitat associations are relevant in promoting local conservation of the herpetofauna and the ecosystem. The area's high conservation value and the apparent threats (forest degradation and resource extraction) necessitates urgent attention and monitoring.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0695-0703

    Antonino Dentici & Paolo Galasso
    Checklist of spiders and opiliones (Arachnida Araneae, Opiliones) of Sicilian southest swamp lakes “Pantano Cuba”, “Pantano Longarini” and “Pantano Bruno” (Italy). Fifth contribution to knowledge of Sicilian spider fauna

    We present a first checklist of Araneae and Opiliones of Pantano Bruno, Pantano Cuba and Pantano Longarini, swamp lakes which are part of one of the most important Sicilian wetland, never studied before for this group of arthropoda, located in the southeast coast of Sicily, between Ispica (Ragusa) and Pachino (Syracuse). From March 2016 until February 2021 samples and data were collected on the field, investigating different types of habitat. In total, 98 different species belonging to 86 genera and 27 families of spiders were found in the area, plus 3 species of 2 genera and 1 families of opilions. The checklist includes interesting first sicilian records of Cyrtarachne ixoides (Simon, 1870) (Araneidae), Crustulina guttata (Wider, 1834) (Theridiidae), Eratigena fuesslini (Pavesi, 1873) (Agelenidae), Nurscia albomaculata (Lucas, 1846) (Titanoecidae) and Tibellus maritimus (Menger, 1875) (Philodromidae). Additional biological, distribution and chorotype information are indicated for each of the new records.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0705-0718

    Andrea Lombardo & Giuliana Marletta
    The sacoglossans (Gastropoda Heterobranchia) of the central-eastern coast of Sicily (Ionian Sea)

    The sacoglossans are a group of marine heterobranchs, distributed in tropical and temperate waters, which are specialised in sucking the cellular fluids of siphonal green algae and other macroalgae. In the present study all the species detected along the central-eastern coast of Sicily from 2017 to the beginning of 2021 are here reported. For each species, observations on morphology, abundance, location, depth, substrates, habitats, seasonality and further remarks were carried out. Through this research, it was highlighted that along the central-eastern coast of Sicily there is almost the 43% of all Mediterranean (including the Black Sea) sacoglossan species. Consequently, although this area is relatively small, it presents a high level of biodiversity regarding this group of gastropods.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0719-0728

    Kamel Hamadi, Rachida Gherbi-Salmi, Linda Cheriak-Bouguessa, Sihem Bakour & Riadh Moulaï
    Contribution to the study of the Orthoptera diversity through the alimentary diet of some waders in Algeria

    In order to study orthopteric diversity through the alimentary diet of predatory birds, 444 rejection pellets of one heron Bubulcus ibis and the White Stork Ciconia ciconia made it possible to carry out an estimation study of the orthopteric fauna of three regions in Algeria, Rachgoun Island, Bjaia and Tébessa. After analysis of the rejection pellets, a specific richness of 32 species of Orthoptera was recorded for the three studied regions, including 10 Ensifera and 22 Caelifera. The Acrididae family predominates in all the Orthoptera populations collected. The highest centesimal frequencies were noted for Gryllus bimaculatus (37%) in Béjaia, Pamphagus tunetanus (36.7%) in Tébessa and Pezotettix giornae (34.73%) and Calliptamus barbarus (31.15%) in Rachgoun Island. This is directly linked to the number of orthopterofauna existing in the field. The diversity of the regions surveyed does not differ much, Rachgoun Island (H’: 2.22 bits, E: 0.79), Béjaia (H’: 3.14 bits, E: 0.71) and Tébessa (H’: 2.13 bits, E: 0.52); with evenly distributed stands with close similarity between Béjaia and Rachgoune Island (42.86%) and between Béjaia and Tébessa (42.10%). The results thus obtained by this study are similar to those of other sampling methods; presenting the possibility of being combined with other techniques for estimating the abundance of orthopteric fauna in order to obtain results close to reality; precisely in the environments where Orthoptera are subjected to strong predation pressure by the avifauna, knowing that it is quite precise, complementary and does not present any ecological constraints.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0729-0732

    Belgacem Nouar, Benchohra Maamar, Hicham Berrabah, Mohammed Souddi, Okkacha Hasnaoui & Abdelkader Nouar
    Diversity and floristic composition of Djebel Nessara region (Tiaret -Algeria)

    This work undertaken represents an phytoecological approach of Djebel Nessara vegetation (Tiaret Mountains). The floristic analysis allowed us to release a list of 119 taxa distributed in 96 genera and 35 families. Angiosperms constitute 97.47% (Monocotyledonous 21% and Dicotyledonous 76.47%) while gymnosperms represent only 2.52%. The most represented families are Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae with percentages of 19.3%, 10.9% and 9.2%, respectively. The comparison of the different biological spectra shows the importance of the therophytes to the number of 57 species with 47.9%. On the biogeographical level, we notice the predominance of Mediterranean biogeographical species with 47.1%. Shannon's biodiversity index (H) is 4.28, while Piélou's Equitability (J) is 0.89 and the Simpson's index (1-D) is 0.98. However, the Perturbation index (PI) is in the order of 61.34%.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0733-0740

    Sayyara C. Ibadullayeva, Gulnara Sh. Shiraliyeva, Lala Z. Gurbanova, Aytekin A. Askerova, Asmer E. Huseynova, Lamiya M. Seyidova & Hilal Z. Qasimov
    Ethnopharmacological use of wild vegetable plants belonging to the Polygonaceae Juss. family spread in the Azerbaijan flora

    The ethnopharmacological and nutritional significance of some wild vegetable plants belonging to the Polygonaceae Juss family widespread in the Azerbaijan flora and used in folk medicine has been described in the article. Although ethnic knowledge is passed down from generation to generation, some information is forgotten if it is not documented. Therefore, we set a goal to study the ethnopharmacological use of wild vegetables belonging to the Polygonaceae family widespread in the flora of Azerbaijan. The organs and developmental phases of plants used as medicine have been clarified, their importance as vegetables and therapeutic properties have been determined. Bioecological features of plants and their distribution areas have been found, reserves have been evaluated. Resource assessment has shown that the supply of the Rumex genus as a raw material will meet the full needs of local communities in vegetables and medicines. Ethnobotanical research was carried out by the methods of field ethnography, observation, survey, questionnaire, interview, etc. Interviews were conducted among human populations of all ages, with most people aged 65-85 providing the necessary information. It has been established that the representatives of the family are used as a food both in raw and cooked form. Their medicinal importance is different. Rumex species are mainly used as astringent, hemostatic, anti-tumor, wound healing substances, and in infectious diseases. Underground organs of Rheum species are used as astringent and hemostatic substances. Above-ground organs are used in kidney disease, gynecological diseases, lymphangitis, and furunculosis. Persicaria hydropiper is used in the treatment of hemorrhoids, gout, rheumatism, diseases of the endocrine system, Acogonon alpinum in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and nervous system, and Polygonum species are mainly used as analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0741-0754

    Praneeth Silva, Tharanga Dananjani, Dulan Jayasekara, Chamara Prabhath & Dharshani Mahaulpatha
    Butterfly species richness, diversity and temporal variation in Maduru Oya National Park, Sri Lanka

    The butterflies are an extremely diverse group of enticing insects in Sri Lanka, comprising 248 known species, of which 26 are endemic species. Present study was conducted from January 2019 to December 2019 in the Maduru Oya National Park with the main objectives of estimating the butterfly diversity and its temporal variation throughout the year. The field method was based on standardized “Pollard walk” method. Line transects of about 1000 meter were applied in length in each habitat types and each transect was divided into five segments of 200 meters. Survey was carried out three days per month in the microhabitat types of Vegetated Cover, Open Grassland and Non-vegetated Area during 0700 to 1700 hours. Shannon Diversity index was used to estimate the butterfly diversity of each micro-habitat types. During the survey, 5040 butterfly count, consisting of 5 families and 33 species, including two endemics, were recorded in the park. Butterfly density was high in October 12.74% and lower in June 09.07%. Species richness was high in February (n= 31), May (n= 28), June (n= 27), November (n= 28) and December (n= 27) months. The main reasons for monthly fluctuations of both mentioned parameters were the seasonal changes with weather fluctuations and the influence of flowering and fruiting season. Papilionidae 24.25%, Pieridae 29.46%, Nymphalidae 26.43%, Lycaenidae 18.49% and Hesperiidae 1.37% counts were recorded in each family. The highest species richness was observed in Vegetated Cover 42.86% (n=33) and the lowest was recorded in Non-Vegetated Area 25.97% (n=20). The present study discloses the fact that Maduru Oya National Park is a hidden paradise for butterflies and encourages more research studies of butterfly fauna to be conducted in national parks as this is the second study which has been carried out in a national park of Sri Lanka and first study in the Maduru Oya National Park.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (3): 0755-0760

    Rachid Dahmani,  Abdessamed Merzouk & Sid Ahmed Aouadj
    Incidences of anthropogenic pressure on the degradation of the scrub of the western Algerian region (Tlemcen, case of Djebel Felloucene): qualitative and quantitative aspects

    The scrub of Djebel de Fellaoucene is one of the forests of the mounts of the Traras (western of Algeria) that undergoes enormous variations which vary according to the regressive or progressive dynamics under climatic and anthropogenic pressures in semi-arid zones. These landscapes are in fact a mosaic in which several types of matorrals such as scrubland or scrub overlap, determined by multiple factors: the local climate (drought, climatic aridity, etc.), the importance of human activities; overgrazing is also a major limiting factor. This current study provides a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the anthropogenic pressure exerted in this area. The methodology adopted in this study is that of Le Houerou (1969) and Montoya (1983), which is based on the calculation of the annual needs of the herd in forage units, the estimation of the food production potential, the overgrazing coefficient and in addition the anthropogenic pressure index. The result of the forage balance in the forest rangelands of the study area has a forage deficit (overload) of -7,962,360 UF (a sylvo-pastoral imbalance), the overgrazing coefficient is (91%) and the anthropogenic pressure index is very high (26). The quantification of the impact of anthropogenic action and overgrazing on the forest formations effects makes it possible to establish a trajectory of the cumulative anthropogenic impacts on this area in order to develop restoration strategies and more effective means of protection.