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Biodiversity Journal 2022, Monograph: 601-662

  • Biodiversity Journal, 13 (3): 0601-0612 - MONOGRAPH

    Teodora Marius Teofilova
    Conservation significance and habitats variety in the Western Rhodope Mts. as a factor for the diversity of the ground beetles (Coleoptera Carabidae)

    This study concerns the Western Rhodope Mts. (Southern Bulgaria), their conservationally significant habitats and the carabid beetles occurring in them. The available significant habitats are systematized and the threats to the existence of the important carabid species are assessed. Connections of the carabids with specific habitats and the attachment to particular environmental conditions are discussed. Anthropogenic impact in the area is also assessed. The main threats and problems related to the degradation and destruction of natural habitats and, hence, decreasing the conservation significance of the area, are established.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 13 (3): 0613-0616 - MONOGRAPH

    Vera D’Urso, Antonino Puglisi, Rosario Grasso & Maria Teresa Spena
    Notes on the Sicilian cave-dwelling species of Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta Rhynchota)

    Up to now, there are very few species of troglobitic Auchenorrhyncha identified for Europe outside the Macaronesian region belonging to the Cixiidae family. From the biospeleological point of view, Sicily is a very interesting island because the presence of both limestone caves and lava tubes that allow a variety of specialized taxa belonging to different groups of Invertebrates. Concerning Auchenorrhyncha, at least two obligately cave-dwelling species belonging to Ibleocixius D’Urso et Grasso, 2009 and Cixius Latreille, 1804 genera inhabit the Sicilian caves. Ibleocixius is a troglobitic genus, endemic from Sicily with a unique species, Ibleocixius dunae, living in a limestone cave of the Hyblean plateau (South-eastern Sicily). Recently, a new troglobitic taxon (under description) has been found in some lava tubes on the Etna volcano; it belongs to Cixius genera, to C. pallipes-wagneri group. Both taxa live on the roots that penetrate the caves. They have a different palaeogeographic history. Ibleocixius dunae is a paleoendemic taxon showing strong degree of troglomorphy, and the genus differs from Cixius and related taxa in a different arrangement of several characters which are also present in other taxa. Cixius n. sp. is a neoendemic taxon showing morphological characters close to those of the epigean species Cixius wagneri sensu Holzinger et al. (2003).

  • Biodiversity Journal, 13 (3): 0617-0621 - MONOGRAPH

    Francesco Giuseppe Galluzzo, Valentina Cumbo, Gaetano Cammilleri, Andrea Macaluso, Antonio Vella, Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Vincenzo Ferrantelli & Salvatore Seminara
    Comparison between aluminum bioaccumulation in samples of the Muscovy duck Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Aves Anatidae) from the city and the country

    Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) is an anatid originating from South America, easily adapted to the European climate. In this work, feathers and blood were used as samples from living individuals to evaluate the bioaccumulation of aluminum. The determination of Al accumulation was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis was conducted in the “Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia” (Palermo, Italy) with validated methods (accredited by ACCREDIA) for biodiversity monitoring and analysis of fauna samples. Samples were collected from a total of twenty individuals of C. moschata, ten samples coming from a park in the city center of Palermo (Southern Italy, Parco d’Orleans), and ten from the field of Monreale (Palermo). Blood from city samples showed a higher level of aluminum than city samples; feathers have had an opposite trend. Al median value determined in blood was ±4,27259 mg/Kg and ±2,61815 mg/Kg respectively for the city (Palermo) and Monreale. In feathers, the median value was ± 402,24218 for samples collected in city and ±1260,75603 for samples collected in Monreale. The concentration levels of Al in feathers were higher in Monreale samples than in Parco D’Orleans, probably because the individuals that live in nature attend the reservoirs where pollutants are poured.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 13 (3): 0623-0626 - MONOGRAPH

    Valentina Cumbo, Francesco Giuseppe Galluzzo, Gaetano Cammilleri, Antonio Vella, Andrea Macaluso, Ilaria Rizzuto, Antonino Pisano, Vincenzo Ferrantelli & Salvatore Seminara
    Testing heavy metals biomonitoring through birds of prey as top predators

    The Experimental Zooprofilactic Institute of Sicily (Italy) has great opportunities and validated methods (accreditated by an important national control unit like ACCREDIA) for biodiversity monitoring and analysis of fauna samples. Fauna recovery centers of Bosco di Ficuzza (Palermo) and Colli San Rizzo (Messina) routinely send dead specimens to the Institute to perform every category of analysis. Valuating heavy metals content in top predators is a strong instrument for territory and biodiversity health monitoring to take actions for management. In this study some specimen members of Buteo buteo (Linneus, 1758) species were investigated for Pb and Cd content. The methodology used for determination was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Results show that in sample 1 Pb levels exceed cut-off values in organs: the liver accumulate a concentration of 4.668 mg/Kg and the muscle 0.200 mg/Kg. For sample 2, Pb and Cd were absent in both organs. Sample 3 reveals a very high concentration of Pb in the liver, with a value of 2.928 mg/Kg; this is probably due to a reiterated presence in the diet of prey killed by lead pellets. Liver of sample 3 accumulated even an high concentration of Cd (3.948 mg/Kg) justified by prey consumption, as rock partridge, rats or rabbits that probably feed on plants treated with agrochemicals.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 13 (3): 0627-0639 - MONOGRAPH

    Aya Algadry, Esra’a Dorman, Essam Bourass & Khaled Etayeb
    The role of constructed wetlands in the conservation of biodiversity: a case study on birds diversity in Al-Hadba treatment plant, Tripoli, Libya

    Urbanization as a result of human population increase has led to the depletion of natural resources and the destruction of natural wetlands. In contrast, the establishment of treatment and purification of plants has led to the creation of new wetlands (constructed wetlands). Although these new ecosystems established for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and subject to operational and maintenance disturbances, many studies have demonstrated that numbers of bird species using such sites are reasonably higher than expected. The present study has investigated the role of Al-Hadba treatment plant in the conservation of biodiversity and the diversity of birds in particular. This paper emphasizes that, this area is one of the stopover sites for migrating birds, especially aquatic birds, ducks and long-legged waders. A total of 74 species were recorded during the period of study. Moreover, this study observed the breeding of four species; Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris, Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis, Moorhen Gallinula chloropus, Black-winged stilt Himantopus himantopus. Some factors such as drought, predation and disturbance were affecting the abundance of individuals at the study area.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 13 (3): 0641-0650 - MONOGRAPH

    Antonino Dentici
    Araneofauna (Arachnida Araneae) of Mount Pellegrino (Sicily, Italy). Fourth contribution to knowledge of the Sicilian spider fauna

    In this work I report on the presence of some Araneae species new or interesting for Sicily and a preliminary checklist of the Araneofauna of the mountain massif “Monte Pellegrino” located in the territory of Palermo (Sicily, Italy) including: Altella lucida (Simon, 1874) (Dictnydae), Agyneta saxatilis (Blackwall, 1844) (Linyphiidae), Anatolidion gentile (Simon, 1881) (Theridiidae) and Heliophanus auratus C.L. Koch, 1835 (Salticidae). Additional biological, literature, chorotype and distribution are indicated.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 13 (3): 0651-0662 - MONOGRAPH

    Marco Masseti
    On the elusive origin of the wild goat, Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777, on the island of Montecristo (Italy)

    The origin of the wild goats currently living on the small island of Montecristo in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy) is still discussed. Their phenotypic characteristics, described as those of the Asia Minor wild goat, also called pasang or Bezoar goat, Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777, would point to an initial nucleus introduced around the Neolithic age. There are, however, also those who hypothesise the importation of the ungulates by the monks who colonised Montecristo from the 5th century AD onwards. Some authors are instead of the opinion that a small herd of goats from the - not better identified - kingdom of Montenegro was introduced by the Crown Prince of the House of Savoy, Vittorio Emanuele III, at the end of the 19th century, with the aim of restocking the local big game. It seems that this rumour began to spread in the aftermath of his marriage to Jelena (Elena), the daughter of the ruler of Montenegro. If that was indeed the case, the question would arise as to what kind of domestic or wild goats these animals from Montenegro might have been. In the latter case, the debate should involve the improbable diffusion of the Asia Minor pasang in the Balkan peninsula.