Skip to main content

Biodiversity Journal 2015, Monograph: 119-411

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 119-120 - MONOGRAPH
    Marc Van Roosmalen & Mason Fisher
    Speciation and Taxonomy: Neotropical Primate diversity
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)
  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 121-122 - MONOGRAPH
    Pietro Alicata
    Speciation and Taxonomy: digressions at the edge of a meeting
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)
  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 123-138 - MONOGRAPH

    Alessandro Minelli
    Taxonomy faces speciation: the origin of species or the fading out of the species?
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Efficient field sampling and new investigation tools, including barcoding and other molecular techniques, are bringing to light an unexpected wealth of new species, including sets of morphologically quite uniform, but genetically distinct cryptic species. On the other hand, increasing appreciation of the dynamic nature of the species and a better knowledge of speciation processes and introgression phenomena challenges the taxonomists’ efforts to shoehorn all diversity of life into a formal classification of which the species would be the basic unit. Unfortunately, there is probably not a single best notion of species, either in theory or in practice.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 139-146 - MONOGRAPH

    Salvatore Nicosia
    The town as a concentrated source of reclaimable water and materials. Opportunities for an engineered conservation strategy
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    A fierce theoretical debate is ongoing about the human species’ existence itself being sustainable for Earth and for living world. In the meanwhile cities, which are considered to concentrate the mankind’s ecological footprints, are steadily growing and gathering huge populations worldwide. This paper assumes that margins do exist to relieve man’s burden on Nature to some extent, and that, regardless of our general concept of the matter, these margins should be exploited. The focus of this note is on beneficial use of waste water and waste to spare new resources and to create filter areas close to towns or belts around them. A brief reference is made to some official declarations and indices published on biodiversity in anthropic environments, such as the one from UNEP.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 147-160 - MONOGRAPH

    Giuseppe Greco
    Pest management of citrus fruits in Sicily (Italy) through interventions of biological control. The example of the biofactory of Ramacca, Catania
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Since 2007, in Sicily, plant health protection against citrus mealybugs is taking place through the Biofactory of Ramacca, in the Plain of Catania, a property of the Institute for Agricultural Development of the Sicilian Region (i.e. Ente per lo Sviluppo Agricolo, E.S.A.). The Biofactory is unique being aimed to produce industrial quantities of auxiliary insects and is a center of European interest because it is fully organized to provide means of biological fight imposed by the Directive 128/2009/EC, which requires, from 1 January 2014, farms to comply with the application of general principles of integrated pest management. In this paper we examine structural features of the Biofactory, breeding techniques empoyed and results obtained in the period 2007–2013, which allowed many companies, from 200 to 360 (i.e. 20% –35% of the regional surface operating in organic citrus production) to be able to employ biological weapons against pest insects. We analyze dynamics and results of production deriving from the approval and adoption, by the owner (E.S.A.), of a new "discipline" that governs the assignment of insects to farmers at a very low price to balance E.S.A.'s purposes, which is both to ensure adequate performance in order to pursue institutional support to agriculture and, considering the Insitute’s economic nature, to partially cover the production costs incurred to ensure the service. The continuity of the project is assured by the ongoing program for the period 2013–2020 with an enlargement of the array of entomological production aimed at intercepting the needs of new productions (i.e. greenhouse horticulture, vines, ornamental and fruit trees).

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 161-164 - MONOGRAPH

    Giulio Cuccodoro & Mickael Blanc
    Implantation of Stagg beetles hostels in the city of Geneva, Switzerland
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Brief presentation of our ongoing project of implementation of a network of “Stagg beetles hostels” in the city of Geneva (Switzerland) aiming at consolidating the last large populations of big woodboring beetles Cerambyx cerdo Linnaues, 1758 (Coleoptera Cerambycidae) and Lucanus cervus Linnaues, 1758 (Coleoptera Lucanidae) in Switzerland.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 165-170 - MONOGRAPH

    Angelo Zimmitti, Rosaria Mangiafico & Pietro Pitruzzello
    Requalification of coastal plant landscape of South-Eastern Sicily, Italy: the case of Marina di Priolo
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    In this paper the Authors examine the psammophilous vegetation and the degrees of naturalness of the coastal plant landscape of a part of the South-Eastern littoral in Sicily. This area is characterized by considerable human pressure due to the presence of a large industrial center and beach tourism. The recent construction of the garden next to the beach, made mainly with ornamental plants has contributed to further amend the original physiognomy of the coastal landscape. Were analyzed, with phytosociological method, psammophilous plant communities and zonation of vegetation. The results of the analysis show a impoverishment of flora and a progressive decline in the psammophilous communities mainly due to the constant leveling the beach in summer. The authors propose a series of actions aimed at the requalification and conservation of coastal vegetation landscape of the investigated area.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 171-174 - MONOGRAPH

    Pietro Minissale
    The use of flora, vegetation and habitats in the studies of Environmental Impact Assessment
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    The paper examines local flora, vegetation and habitats in order to highlight the plant component’s role as not only an indicator of the quality and state of the environment, but also as an extremely useful element in restoration activities required by environmental impact studies. Some methodological proposals have been done as objective criteria in the assessment procedures.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 175-184 - MONOGRAPH

    Giorgio Sabella, Oscar Lisi & Fabio Massimo Viglianisi
    The use of the entomofauna in the studies of the Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A.) and Assessment of Impact (A.I.)
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    The paper highlights the entofauna’s role as not only as an indicator of the environmental quality, but also as an useful component in the studies of the Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A.) and Assessment of Impact (A.I.). Some approaches and tools, with particular emphasis on Sicily, are proposed in regards to the use of the entomofauna in the assessment procedures.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 185-192 - MONOGRAPH

    Giorgio Sabella, Antonio Alicata & Fabio Massimo Viglianisi
    A study case of Assessment of Impact using the invertebrates
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    A study case of Assessment of Impact (A.I.) in regards to the project of achieving diaphragm containment for homogeneous areas T and V of the Gela Refinery is explained. The invertebrates were used to evaluate the environmental quality and also to identify appropriate and effective mitigation measures and for preparing a post-operam monitoring. Some methodological proposals and an index of faunistic habitat value have been proposed.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 193-196 - MONOGRAPH

    Francesco Maria Raimondo & Vivienne Spadaro
    Diversity in the population of Brassica incana Ten. (Cruciferae) in Sicily
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Phenotipic diversity in Sicilian populations of Brassica incana Ten. (Cruciferae) is here analyzed in comparison with the only one known population of B. raimondoi Sciandrello et al., taxonomic close species recently described from the coastal relief of eastern Sicily. The analysis of diagnostic characters of these two taxa does not reveal significant differences that justify a treatment at species level of the population of B. raimondoi. On this base, the authors deemed to include this taxon in the infraspecific variability of B. incana and consider most appropriate the rank of subspecies. Therefore is here proposed the establishment of the trinomial combination B. incana subsp. raimondoi.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 197-204 - MONOGRAPH

    Gianniantonio Domina, Giuseppe Bazan, Patrizia Campisi & Werner Greuter
    Taxonomy and conservation in Higher Plants and Bryophytes in the Mediterranean Area
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    The Mediterranean Region is among the areas of the world richest in wild and cultivated taxa. Extinctions in the Mediterranean area are bound to have occurred in historical times but they are not documented. The probable and documented cases of plant extinction in specific areas within the Mediterranean are equivalent to 0.25% of total species-by-area records. Species with a large range are more prone to local population size fluctuations and eventual extinction than species with a reduced population. Small islands floras are more prone to extinction than those on large islands and on the mainland. Reliability of our data on Mediterranean plant extinctions is poor. New emphasis on floristic research is needed to boost our deficient knowledge of the Mediterranean flora. A closer collaboration between scholars and amateurs can increase floristic knowledge and also help unravel taxonomic problems.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 205-214 - MONOGRAPH

    Emilio Di Gristina, Francesco Maria Raimondo & Pietro Mazzola
    Diversity in the genus Hieracium Linnaeus s. str. (Asteraceae) in Sicily
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    The present taxonomic and floristic knowledges on Hieracium L. s. str. in Sicily are commented. In total, 11 taxa occur in this island, 10 of which are endemic and 1 has a wider range. For each of these taxa, biological form, phenology, distribution, ecology, chromosome number, conservation, and taxonomy are taken in consideration. A key to the taxa is also provided.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 215-218 - MONOGRAPH

    Angelo Troìa, Francesco Maria Raimondo & Werner Greuter
    Lycopodiidae for the “Flora Critica d’Italia”: material and methods
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Procedures are presented that were followed during the preparation of the first pteridophyte family treatments for the “Flora Critica d’Italia”: Lycopodiaceae, Isoetaceae, Selaginellaceae. The work was mainly based on the study of literature and herbarium specimens. In some cases SEM observation of spores has proved useful. Data collected from herbarium specimens and other verified sources were loaded into a database, from which a distribution map was prepared for each taxon. Several preliminary papers have been published, and for each family a taxonomic conspectus, with type designations, maps and an identification key, has been prepared. The treatment of these three families for the “Flora Critica d’Italia” (in Italian) is about to be published or (Isoetaceae) has already been published.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 219-244 - MONOGRAPH

    Marc G.M. van Roosmalen
    Hotspot of new megafauna found in the Central Amazon: the lower Rio Aripuanã Basin
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Here I announce the discovery of a whole new ecosystem in the central-southern part of the Brazilian Amazon: the Rio Aripuanã Basin. Overall, it seems to have created more ecological niches than any other river basin in the Amazon, in particular so to aquatic and non-volant terrestrial mammals. This is plausibly explained for by the unique geo-morphological history of the region. During the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene the entire area to the southeast of the Rio Madeira contained one huge clear-water system that was drained toward the south into the Atlantic Ocean. In the course of several million years a biome quite different from the rest of Amazonia could evolve in this drainage system. Living relicts from ancient times that happened to survive in isolation here, are: a dwarf manatee here described as Trichechus pygmaeus n. sp., a dolphin locally called “boto roxo” that is suspected to be closer related to marine Rio Plata dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais et d'Orbigny, 1844) than to Amazonian dolphins of the genus Inia (d'Orbigny, 1834), a black dwarf tapir (Tapirus pygmaeus Van Roosmalen, 2013, with T. kabomani Cozzuol et al., 2013 as junior name), a dwarf marmoset Callibella humilis Van Roosmalen et Van Roosmalen, 2003, a new mono-specific genus of Callitrichidae that stands at the base of the phylogenetic tree of all extant marmosets (i.e., Cebuella Gray, 1866, Mico Lesson, 1840, and Callithrix Erxleben, 1777), a giant striped paca here described as Agouti silvagarciae n. sp., and an arboreal giant anteater spotted in the wild but remains to be collected and described (Myrmecophaga n. sp.). A number of other, more advanced mammalian species discovered in the Rio Aripuanã Basin, among which a third species of brocket here described as Mazama tienhoveni n. sp., evolved after a dramatic vicariance took place about 1-1.8 MYA (million years ago), the break-through of the continental watershed by the proto-Madeira River during one of the glacial epochs of the Middle Pleistocene. It marked the birth of the modern fast-flowing Rio Madeira, in terms of total discharge the biggest tributary of the Amazon proper and the second strongest river barrier in the entire Amazon Basin. Furthermore, current threats to the environment in this sparsely inhabited and poorly explored river basin will be addressed. We intend to have this ‘lost world’ preserved as a UNESCO Natural World Heritage Reserve through the divulgation of new, hitherto not yet identified mammals that it appears to harbor.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 245-252 - MONOGRAPH

    Mohamed Faisel Ashour Essghaier, Ibrahim Moftah Taboni & Khaled Salem Etayeb
    The diversity of wild animals at Fezzan Province (Libya)
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Fezzan province (Libya) is a segment of true Sahara, is characterized by diverse habitats that are utilized as shelters and feeding ground for many desert wildlife species. Oases with water table near the surface are the most prominent feature in the Libyan desert. The diversity in habitats resulted in diversity in wildlife, as well as the plant cover (trees and bushes) is the most effective factor for the existence and the abundance of wild animals, in particular bird species. This study observed many species of reptiles, birds and mammals. In the study is also reported the rock hyrax Procavia capensis Pallas, 1766 (Hyracoidea Procaviidae) a rare and endemic species at the area.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 253-262 - MONOGRAPH

    Khaled Salem Etayeb, Ali Berbash, Wajeeh Bashimam, Mohamed Bouzainen, Ashrof Galidana, Mokhtar Saied, Jaber Yahia & Essam Bourass
    Results of the eighth winter waterbird census in Libya in January 2012
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    After sporadic observations and reports on Libyan birds during the last century, a regular census of wintering birds at Libyan coastal wetlands started in January 2005. Results of each winter census till 2011 have been published. The survey of 2012 was carried out by the authors of the present paper. The general aim was to continue the census of wintering waterbirds in Libya, despite the difficulties that faced the team after the War of Liberation, and the fact that certain areas, very important for birds, have been declared military areas. A total of 29,314 individuals belonging to 69 waterbird species was counted. Comparatively, the number of sites covered in 2012 was less than that in previous years of the survey. The majority of individuals counted belong to seven gull species. This survey also observed a total of 56 individuals of Aythya nyroca Guldenstadt, 1770, a Near Threatened species, as well as, for the first time, a single individual of Canada Goose Branta canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) in eastern Libya.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 263-270 - MONOGRAPH

    Agatino Maurizio Siracusa, Elisa Musumeci, Vera D’Urso & Giorgio Sabella
    New knowledge on diet and monitoring of a roost of the long-eared owl, Asio otus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigiformes Strigidae) on Mount Etna, Sicily
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    A study during autumn and winter in Monte Serra area (Mount Etna) was performed on the pellets of a roost of long-eared owl, Asio otus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigiformes Strigidae). Besides, in order to better understand the feeding habits of this species on Mount Etna, the data from Monte Serra were integrated with those from Linguaglossa Pineta (breeding period). The study was performed through the analysis of 1,724 preys. The species most preyed was the Mammalia Microtidae Microtus savii (de Selys-Longchamps, 1838). The average weight of the preys was 23.48 g, while the average meal was 36.63 g. Besides, the results of the yearly monitoring of the roost studied are given.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 271-284 - MONOGRAPH

    Michele Viganò & Andrea Corso
    Morphological differences between two subspecies of Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata (Pallas, 1764) (Passeriformes Muscicapidae)
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Four subspecies of Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata Pallas, 1764) (Passeriformes Muscicapidae) are usually recognized within the Western Palaearctic. We carefully analysed two of these in order to determine and quantify their morphological differences: M. striata striata (inhabiting most of continental Europe east to the Ural mountains and a small portion of north-western Africa) and M. striata tyrrhenica Schiebel, 1910 (breeding on the Tyrrhenian islands of Corsica, Sardinia and the Tuscan Archipelago). We examined total of 58 Spotted Flycatcher specimens from Italian museums (of which 18 M. striata tyrrhenica) and obtained data about morphological features such as wing point, length and formula, and bill length, width and depth; furthermore, we investigated plumage colour using a spectrometer. Biometric measurements and an analysis of plumage streaking confirmed the presence of important differences between the two taxa; the colorimetric analysis did not produce the expected results, although it had some interesting implications concerning the preservation of museum specimens and their use in studies of plumage colour.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 285-296 - MONOGRAPH

    Andrea Corso, Lorenzo Starnini, Michele Viganò & Justin J.F.J. Jansen
    A quantitative morphological geographical study from a widely distributed raptor: the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 (Falconiformes Falconidae)
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 (Falconiformes Falconidae) is considered a monotypic species. F. naumanni pekinensis Swinhoe, 1870 was described from Beijing, China. Although considered valid for most of the 20th century, some authors treated F. naumanni pekinensis as a synonym of F. naumanni naumanni, and subsequent authors have since regarded “pekinensis” as an invalid taxon. Recent field observations in Asia and Europe and museum studies have confirmed diagnosable differences in (fresh) adult males. Comparing morphology between nominate “naumanni ” and “pekinensis”, with the latter invariably showing more extensive grey on the wing coverts and darker and more saturated colours on both the underparts and upperparts, with all grey areas, including the hood, being a darker, deeper lead-grey. Females often have more extensive dark markings and a better-defined dark eye-line but apparently are indistinguishable in most cases. This study aims to re-evaluate F. naumanni pekinensis and to discuss geographic variation in the subspecies in a widely distributed raptor.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 297-304 - MONOGRAPH

    Oscar Lisi
    Current knowledge on the Sicilian tardigrade fauna
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Based on the literature, and adding personal contribution, the author takes stock of the knowledge about the species of limno-terrestrial tardigrades present in Sicily and the main small islands around it (Aeolian Islands, Ustica, Egadi Islands). In total 111 species are reported: 108 from Sicily (main island), 35 from the Aeolian Islands, 17 from Ustica and 11 from the Egadi Islands. Two species are new records only for the respective islands, 13 are new records for the whole studied area, four of which are new also for the Italian fauna. A good 13 species (11.7%) are at present endemic for the studied area. The zoogeographic spread of the 111 Sicilian tardigrade species confirms the modern ideas about tardigrade zoogeography.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 305-308 - MONOGRAPH

    Alessandro Marletta, Giuseppe Nicolosi & Tiziana Grech
    On the presence of Campodea majorica sicula Condé, 1957 (Diplura Campodeidae) in the "Abisso della Pietra Selvaggia" cave (Mount Pellegrino, Palermo, Italy)
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    We report for the first time the presence of Campodea majorica sicula Condé, 1957 (Insecta, Diplura, Campodeidae) in the "Abisso della Pietra Selvaggia", a vertical karst cave situated in the southern slope of Mount Pellegrino, adjacent to the city of Palermo (Sicily). This hypogean subspecies is considered endemic of Sicily and up to now it was known only for the “Addaura Caprara” cave, located at the opposite slope (north-east) of Mount Pellegrino. During a speleological excursion in the "Abisso della Pietra Selvaggia" cave, organized by “Centro Speleologico Etneo” (Catania, Italy), 14 specimens of this subspecies were collected in the bottom of the cave, at -170 m. The bottom is one of the few humid areas of the cave, whereas the rest is very dry, dusty and apparently without Diplura. In addition to C. majorica sicula, currently are known the following C. majorica subspecies, all hypogean: C. majorica majorica Condé, 1955, C. majorica interjecta Condé, 1955, both endemic of some caves of Majorca Island (Balearic Islands, Spain) and C. majorica valentina Sendra et Moreno, 2004, found inside 7 caves located in the karstic area of Mount Mondúver and Sierra de Corbera (SE of Valencia, Spain).

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 309-322 - MONOGRAPH

    Adalgisa Guglielmino & Christoph Bückle
    Remarks on the composition of the Auchenorrhyncha fauna in some moist areas in Southern Apulia (Italy)
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    A list of 84 Auchenorrhyncha species collected from field excursions in the province of Lecce (Southern Apulia) in June 2011 and April 2012 is given. Prevalently three areas were studied: the Regional Natural Park “Bosco e Paludi di Rauccio”, the Protected Oasis “Laghi Alimini” and the State Natural Reserve “Le Cesine”. Four species (Delphax meridionalis (Haupt, 1924), Delphacodes capnodes (Scott, 1870), Parapotes reticulatus (Horváth, 1897) and Calamotettix taeniatus (Horváth, 1911) are recorded for the first time for Italy, five (Stenokelisia angusta Ribaut, 1934, Euides basilinea (Germar, 1821), Chloriona glaucescens Fieber, 1866, Hecalus storai (Lindberg, 1936) and Melillaia desbrochersi (Lethierry, 1899) are new records for the Apennine Peninsula (“S” in the checklist of the Italian fauna) and 26 new for Apulia. For some species of special interest their ecology and distribution is discussed. The investigated areas are of high relevance for nature conservation as they constitute small relics of formerly vastly extended coastal marshes, where several stenotopic Auchenorrhyncha species occur, associated particularly with moist vegetation. Interesting is a group of taxa that are known only from the Balkan region and South Italy. Possibly the isolated occurrence of some other Auchenorrhyncha taxa in Apulia is connected rather with the Balkan Peninsula than with Central Europe.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 323-326 - MONOGRAPH

    Alfredo Petralia, Ettore Petralia, Giorgio Sabella, Filadelfo Brogna & Corrado Bianca
    Presence's mapping of Brachytrupes megacephalus (Lefebvre, 1827) (Orthoptera Gryllidae) within the Natural Reserve of Vendicari (Noto, Siracusa, Italy)
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Brachytrupes megacephalus (Lefebvre, 1827) (Orthoptera Gryllidae) is a species included in the Annexes II and IV of EU Directive 92/43 as taxon requiring strict protection. The authors summarize the researches aimed to recognize the localization of this species within the natural reserve of Vendicari, protected area along the south eastern Sicilian coast in the territory of Noto (province of Siracusa). The presence of the specimens was ascertained by detecting its holes on the soil surface. The holes position was recorded using GPS and utilized for mapping the presence of the species as tool for its protection management in the reserve territory.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 327-340 - MONOGRAPH

    Rostislav Bekchiev & Borislav Guéorguiev
    First purposive study of beetles (Coleoptera) from endogean environments in Bulgaria: collection sites and preliminary results
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    So far, special attention to the endogean and MSS (Mesovoid Shallow Substratum) fauna was not paid in Bulgaria, though typical subterranean species of the Coleoptera have been described. The aim of present study is to put on record the results of a broad-scale study of the coleopteran fauna from the MSS and lower (euedaphic) soil horizons in the country. We carried out investigations in the period April 2006–July 2014, manly in the Vitosha Mt., Pirin Mt., Stara Planina Mts., Slavyanka Mt., Belasitsa Mt., Erma and Kresna Gorge, Western Rhodopes Mts., and Srednagora Mts. For the time being, material from the following families was identified to the genus and species levels: Anobiidae, Aphodiidae, Carabidae, Clambidae, Corylophidae, Curculionidae, Endomychidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Monotomidae, Scyrtidae, Silvanidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae (Pselaphinae) and Zopheridae. We report for the first time the subgenus Antisphodrus Schaufuss, 1865 (Carabidae) and Zustalestus Reitter, 1912 (Curculionidae) from Bulgaria. Blemus discus discus (Fabricius, 1792) is recorded for the second time from the country.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 341-352 - MONOGRAPH

    Rumyana Kostova
    Ground beetles (Coleoptera Carabidae) diversity patterns in forest habitats of high conservation value, Southern Bulgaria
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    The study presents a comparison between the diversity of the carabid beetles taxocoenoses and their spatial distribution in different forest types of high conservation value in Strandzha (8 sites), the Rhodopes (4 sites) and Belasitsa (6 sites) mountains. The diversity indices have demonstrated the highest species richness and the highest diversity values in the riverside sites of Strandzha Mountain. The lowest species richness has been found in the tertiary relict forest of oriental beech with undergrowth of rhododendron (Strandzha Mountain) and in the century-old sweet chestnut forest (Belasitsa Mountain). The lowest values of diversity and evenness have been found in the beech forest sites in Strandzha and the Rhodopes due to the prevalence of the Aptinus species. This low diversity is a natural condition for the studied sites. The classification of the ground beetles complexes from the studied sites by similarity indices and TWINSPAN has been made. A high level of dissimilarity among the sites has been found, showing unique species composition and abundance models in each site. Carabid beetles taxocoenoses in the forests of Strandzha Mountain have shown a low similarity level by species composition and abundance even in the range of the same mountain. Indicator species have been shown. The ordination of the carabid complexes has showed that the sites have been distributed continuously along two significant gradients. The first gradient has been found to be the altitude (probably due to the temperature conditions) in a combination with the hydrological regime. The second significant gradient probably has been under the complex influence of the climate conditions and vegetation type.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 353-364 - MONOGRAPH

    Andrea Cosentino & Salvatore Giacobbe
    Mollusc assemblages of hard bottom subtidal fringe: a comparison between two coastal typologies
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    The mollusc assemblages of subtidal fringe from two different coastal typologies are described in their qualitative and quantitative features. The large-scale spatial investigation has been carried out in the lava cliffs of Catania and the conglomerate “beach-rocks” of Capo Peloro (Messina), whose assemblages have been compared by fourteen shallow sampling stations, spaced out hundred/thousand meters apart. The similarity/dissimilarity levels of the two assemblages have been evaluated throughout a set of eighty-six species, exclusive or common between the two areas. Both the assemblages were characteristic of an impoverished and highly variable photophilic taxocoenosis. The area was the main discriminating factor that determined the highest richness and abundance in the rough lava surface. The Catania assemblage was more constant in species composition, with presence of exclusive bivalves, cue of a micro-sedimentary environment. The Messina assemblage was very variable in species composition, and its structure, dominated by motile gastropods, was evidence of a high energy environment. Differences in the structure and micro-topography of the natural substratum from the two areas, besides possible secondary influence of freshwater inputs and wave exposure, were factors mainly responsible for the observed patterns. The whole data set, with dominant and accessory taxa, involves a relevant contribution from the deeper subtidal assemblage; despite of their ephemeral character, these assemblages contribute to maintain the local biodiversity on a broader spatial scale.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 365-370 - MONOGRAPH

    Danilo Scuderi
    On the rediscovery of the vermetid “Siphonium” gaederopi Mörch, 1861 (Gastropoda Vermetidæ) with systematic and ecological observations on the early juveniles stages
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Some specimens of a not identified Dendropoma Mörch, 1862 were collected in the Mediterranean. Further taxonomical studies allowed to identify this material as “Siphoniumgaederopi (Mörch, 1861), a species never recorded again after its first description. It is here redescribed and figured on the basis of the mentioned collected material and after the study of the type material of Mörch’s collection, among which the syntype is here selected. This species is assigned to Dendropoma, according to the morphological characters of the shell, radula, external soft parts and operculum. The shell, the soft parts and the juvenile stage of D. gaederopi are here figured for the first time and compared to congeners and to Vermetus granulatus (Gravenhorst, 1831), similar only in shell morphology. The new findings of this species represent the first certain record, after the doubtful locality of the original description.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 371-376 - MONOGRAPH

    Paolo Balistreri, Renato Chemello & Anna Maria Mannino
    First assessment of the vermetid reefs along the coasts of Favignana Island (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Intertidal vermetid reefs, particularly vulnerable to environmental changes and human activities, are now experiencing high mortality in several areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Since the increase of knowledge on this habitat is important for conservation purposes, we provide a first baseline assessment of the vermetid reefs along the coasts of the Favignana Island (Marine Protected Area “Egadi Islands”). Preliminary results showed the presence of a true reef, similar to a fringing reef, displaying at least three local patterns, distinguishable for width (from 2.3 to 15.5 m), height of the outer and of the inner margin (from 5.6 to 18 cm and from 8.3 to 26 cm, respectively) and number, width and depth of cuvettes. Moreover, significant differences in topographic complexity among the areas were evidenced whereas no correlation between coastal exposure and topographic complexity was found.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 377-392 - MONOGRAPH

    Agnese Petraccioli, Paolo Crovato, Ivano Niero, Laura De Riso, Camillo Pignataro, Gaetano Odierna & Nicola Maio
    A preliminary checklist of the species of non-marine molluscs (Mollusca Gastropoda Bivalvia) from the Alburni Mountains (Campania, Southern Italy)
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    An annotated checklist of the species of non-marine molluscs from the Alburni Mountains (Salerno Province, Campania, Southern Italy) is reported. The research was carried out from 2010 to 2013 inside a Site of Community Importance (SCI) and a Special Protection Area (SPA), of the Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni National Park. The non-marine molluscs sampled on the field were compared with data available from the literature and malacological collections. Up to now, only 12 non-marine Mollusc species were known from the Alburni Mountains through bibliographical data. In all, the malacofauna of Alburni Mountains is composed by 83 non-marine Mollusc species (73 species of land snails, and 10 species of freshwater molluscs). The presence of nine species (six species of land snails and three species of freshwater snails) was confirmed by our field investigation, four species (3 species of land snails and 1 species of allochthonous freshwater snails) were recorded only by bibliographical data and were not yet found. Our analysis identifies 70 species of non-marine Molluscs (64 species of land snails, 6 species of freshwater molluscs) recorded on the basis of field data which were not previously recorded from the study area. At least 11 species are new records for the Campania Region. Extremely interesting is the record of Vertigo angustior Jeffreys, 1830 a species protected in European Union by the Annex II of the “Habitats Directive” and listed as “Vulnerable” at the European level. A Red List of Threatened Species is proposed and the species were classified with the code of I.U.C.N. (Version 2014.3). Five allochthonous species were surveyed for the first time in the study area: 3 land snails: Lucilla scintilla (Lowe, 1852), Lucilla singleyana (Pilsbry, 1829) and Paralaoma servilis (Shuttleworth, 1852), and 2 freshwater snails: Potamopyrgus antipodarum (J.E. Gray, 1843) and Ferrissia fragilis (Tryon, 1863). Four species are known exclusively from the literature: Vertigo (Vertigo) moulinsiana (Dupuy, 1849), Macrogastra (Pyrostoma) plicatula (Draparnaud, 1801), Cernuella virgata (Da Costa, 1778), and Haitia acuta (Draparnaud, 1805).

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 393-400 - MONOGRAPH

    Paolo Stara, Federico Marini, Giuseppe Carone & Enrico Borghi
    Distribution of two Amphiope L. Agassiz, 1840 (Echinoidea Clypeasteroida) morphotypes in the Western-Proto-Mediterranean Sea
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    Several species belonging to the genus Amphiope L. Agassiz, 1840 (Echinoidea Astriclypeidae) from the Mediterranean Oligo-Miocene have been synonymised with A. bioculata (Des Moulins, 1835), the type-species of the genus, based on the interpretation given by Philippe (1998) as a taxon characterized by a large amount of morphological variability. A recent study introduced the characters of the internal test structure and the plating patterns as taxonomic tools in this genus. That paper indicated the occurrence of at least five different species in the examined sample from the Oligo-Miocene of Sardinia, thus pointing to a previous overestimation of the variability-range of the type-species and to the need of a review of the largely unresolved taxonomy of Amphiope. According to a recent study, Amphiope is considered as a shallow-water echinoid, inhabiting sandy bottoms with high hydrodynamic energy; so it represents a coastline marker, useful for the study of the paleo-geographic changes occurred in the Proto-Western-Mediterranean during the Miocene. The diffusion and speciation of Amphiope were highly influenced by those changes. In particular, the speciation rate of this genus was likely favored by the occurrence of isolated populations created when islands (e.g.: Baleares, Calabria, Corse, Kabylies, Sardinia) separate from the mainland, above all in the western part of that Basin, because of the opening of the Balearic Basin during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene and of the Tyrrhenian Sea during the Burdigalian-Tortonian (references in this work). Two main morphotypes of Amphiope sensu Stara & Sanciu (2014), developed in the Western Mediterranean from the late Oligocene to the late Miocene. They are herein called the “bioculata” group, characterized by roundish to broad elliptical lunules with major diameter/minor diameter ratio (SI) < 1.59, and the "nuragica" group, with more or less narrow lunules and SI > 1.6. According to this authors, most Miocene forms with narrow elliptical lunules would derive from A. nuragica (Comaschi Caria, 1955), late Oligocene-early Miocene of Sardinia, the most archaic form so far known of this genus. The forms belonging to the “bioculata” group likely derived from a different common ancestor bearing round to broad ovoidal lunules. “A. bioculata” described by Cottreau (1914), from the Burdigalian (Philippe, 1998) of Saint Cristol (Nissan, Herault, France), is so far the most ancient known form belonging to this group. This work proposes a possible speciation sequence of the “nuragica” group.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 6 (1): 401-411 - MONOGRAPH

    Maria Stella Colomba, Armando Gregorini, Fabio Liberto, Agatino Reitano, Salvatore Giglio & Ignazio Sparacio
    The genus Erctella Monterosato, 1894: new molecular evidence
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress “Speciation and Taxonomy”, May 16th-18th 2014, Cefalù-Castelbuono (Italy)

    ABSTRACT
    In this paper we report on new molecular data (COI sequences) of different and representative populations of Erctella mazzullii (De Cristofori et Jan, 1832), E. cephalaeditana Giannuzzi-Savelli, Oliva et Sparacio, 2012 and E. insolida (Monterosato, 1892) (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora, Helicidae). Present results are compared with those from recent literature and the current knowledge on phylogenetic relationships among Helicidae pulmonate gastropods is reviewed. Obtained results suggest that: i) Cornu Born, 1778 and Cantareus Risso, 1826 are separate and well distinct from Helix Linnaeus, 1758; ii) Erctella Monterosato, 1894 is a valid and independent genus rather than a subgenus of Cornu; iii) Cornu aspersum (O.F. Müller, 1774) is a group of species (i.e. "aspersum" group) whose taxonomic status needs to be defin further studies; iv) Cornu, Cantareus and Erctella might belong to the same tribe that, still, remains to be defined.