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Biodiversity Journal 2016, 7 (1): 1-200

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 001-002
    Danilo Scuderi
    Polycera quadrilineata (O.F. Müller, 1776) (Gastropoda Polyceridae)
  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 003-006

    Lamanna Francesco
    Nesting of the Black Stork Ciconia nigra Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves Ciconiidae) in the Fiumara Vitravo Valley (Calabria, Italy)

    The Fiumara Vitravo Valley in the province of Crotone in Italy, is a Site of National Interest for its rich biodiversity and peculiar habitat, and also a strategic area for the nesting of Black Stork, Ciconia nigra Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves Ciconiidae). The river morphology, the harshness of this wild territory, the luxuriant vegetation, the presence of a hydrographic network rich of trophic resources and the crucial position along the migratory routes, are fundamental for the reproductive biology and the evolution of this species. This work will expose the results of the monitoring activities that were carried out in 2015 by which it was possible to document the Black Stork nesting on rocky areas in the valley of Fiumara Vitravo. The ecological importance of the area is strongly in need of greater scientific attention and a suitable site preservation in order to favor the population increment of the Black Stork also in Calabria, where the active reproductive population was present only until 2001. The results are in evident countertrend with respect to older statistical data, which provide negative and sparse data for black stork presence in the “Alto Crotonese” region.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 007-010

    Erika Meerhoff, David Veliz, Caren Vega-Retter & Beatriz Yannicelli
    The amphioxus Epigonichthys maldivensis (Forster Cooper, 1903) (Cephalochordata Branchiostomatidae) larvae in the plankton from Rapa Nui (Chile) and ecological implications

    We report the first record of amphioxus larvae in the plankton from Rapa Nui island (Chile). Zooplankton was sampled using an oblique Bongo net during an oceanograhic survey in April and September 2015. A total of four larvae were collected in the coastal area of Rapa Nui in April and 13 in September. The larvae were identified as Epigonichthys maldivensis (Forster Cooper, 1903) (Cephalochordata Branchiostomatidae) using both morphological and genetic characters. The water column in this area presented a mean temperature of 21.2 °C, a mean salinity of 35.7% and 4.94 ml/L dissolved oxygen in April, and 20 °C and 35.75% mean salinity in September. Amphioxus have been reported as playing a key role in marine food webs transferring important amounts of microbial production to higher trophic levels, due to this their role in the Rapa Nui plankton and benthos as adults could be interesting because Easter island is located in the oligotrophic gyre of the South Pacific ocean where a microbial trophic web is expected to dominate. This record increases the biodiversity of Rapa Nui plankton and widens the geographic distribution of E. maldivensis that was restricted only to the Western and Central Pacific and Indian Ocean.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 011-016

    Ivan Rapuzzi
    Description of three new subspecies of Carabus Linnaeus, 1758 (subgenus Coptolabrus Solier, 1848) and taxonomic changing on some Carabus from Far East of Russia (Coleoptera Carabidae Carabinae)

    Three new Carabus Linnaeus, 1758 (subgenus Coptolabrus Solier, 1848) subspecies from Far East of Russia and Central China (Anhui Province, Chongqing Province) are described and figured: C. (Coptolabrus) smaragdinus losevi n. ssp., C. (Coptolabrus) elysii wangguofeni n. ssp. and C. (Coptolabrus) ignigena tenuitarsatus n. ssp. Comparative notes with the closest taxa are provided. Carabus (Morphocarabus) hummeli vladobydovi Obydov, 2007, C. (Aulonocarabus) gossarei mareschii Rapuzzi, 2010, C. (Megodontus) vietinghoffii rugicolor Rapuzzi, 2010 and C. (Coptolabrus) smaragdinus robinzoni Rapuzzi, 2010 recently considered as synonyms are resurrected as valid subspecies.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 017-020

    Yusli Wardiatno, Agus Alim Hakim, Ali Mashar, Nurlisa Alias Butet, Luky Adrianto & Achmad Farajallah
    On the presence of the Andaman lobster, Metanephrops andamanicus (Wood-Mason, 1891) (Crustacea Astacidea Nephropidae) in Palabuhanratu bay (S-Java, Indonesia)

    The first Andaman lobster, Metanephrops andamanicus (Wood-Mason, 1891) (Crustacea Astacidea Nephropidae) record from south of Java waters, part of Indian Ocean is reported in this paper. A total of 3 specimens were collected at a fish harbor in Palabuhanratu bay in May 2015. Morphological characters are illustrated and described. This finding enhances the biodiversity lists of Indonesian crustaceans.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 021-024

    O. Eric Ramírez-Bravo
    Does local knowledge change after a species long term absence? The case of giant river otters Pteronura brasiliensis Gmelin, 1788 (Carnivora Mustelidae)

    Public participation could be useful to determine species presence and ecological aspects, however it is possible that local knowledge of species whose populations had suffered a decrease could have changed. To determine current knowledge of giant river otter, Pteronura brasiliensis Gmelin, 1788 (Carnivora Mustelidae), we undertook a preliminary assessment based on 35 interviews preformed between June and August 2014 with natural resources users in the Pacaya-Samiria Reserve (Peru) aimed to determine the presence, feeding habits, reproduction periods, and threats. It was possible to determine that current knowledge cor- respond with available information in literature thus, I consider that it is possible to use public participation in cases of little known species that are recovering.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 025-032

    Xiongwen Chen & Tuo Feng
    Patterns of Butterfly distribution in Alabama, USA (Lepidoptera)

    Butterflies (Lepidoptera) are an iconic group of insects and are emphasized in ecological research and biodiversity conservation due to the role in ecological processes. Alabama (USA) has 139 species of butterflies in 6 families based on the previous field surveys. In this study the information from the previous field survey was analyzed with environmental information for the general patterns across 67 counties of Alabama. The results indicate that the counties with the higher butterfly species are mainly within the metropolitan areas; power-law relationship exists between average species number and occupied county number; there is higher number of butterfly species at counties with either the highest or the lowest forest coverage; there is positive correlation between latitude and butterfly species density; counties with the lowest or the highest species number usually have higher standard deviations in annual air temperature or precipitation; butterflies with a big distribution area do not have significantly bigger wing size in comparison to ones with a small distribution area; and with the increase of latitude, the average wing size of butterflies increases. The results provide new understanding for the butterfly distribution at a regional level.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 033-038

    Nicola Maio,  Vincenzo Maione & Riccardo Sgammato
    First record of a Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781) in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Cetacea Balaenopteridae)

    It is reported the sighting of a Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781) (Cetacea Balaenopteridae) in the Gulf of Pozzuoli, near the coast of Baia (Bacoli, Napoli, Campania, Southern Italy). This record represents the first in the Tyrrenian Sea, the eighth in the Italian Seas and the twenty-fourth in the Mediterranean Sea.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 039-050

    Sunil Kumar Gupta
    Systematic account of Orthoptera fauna of Bastar district, Chhattisgarh, India

    A faunistic survey in Bastar district, Chhattisgarh (India) revealed 52 species belonging to 45 genera, 8 families, including five species which are new record to the Orthoptera fauna of Chhattisgarh: Calliptamus barbarus barbarus (Costa, 1836), Ceracris fasciata (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893), Oedaleus senegalensis (Krauss, 1877), Aularches miliaris miliaris (Linnaeus,1758), and Loxoblemmus haani Saussure, 1877.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 051-054

    Paolo Galasso, Nadia Curcuraci & Alessandro Marletta
    First record of Brachytron pratense (Müller, 1764) in Sicily (Odonata Aeshnidae)

    Brachytron pratense (Müller, 1764) is a small Odonata Aeshnidae widespread throughout most of Europe and Central-northern Italy, but up to now never recorded in Sicily. During the spring 2015, some specimens of this species were observed and photographed for the first time at the swamp lake “Pantano Cuba”, in the southeast coast of Sicily, near to Pachino (Syracuse). This record represents now the southernmost Italian locality for this species.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 055-057

    Bruno Amati & Marco Oliverio
    First record of Callistochiton pachylasmae (Monterosato, 1879) for the Adriatic Sea (Polyplacophora Callistoplacidae)

    It is reported the first record of Callistochiton pachylasmae (Monterosato, 1879) for the Adriatic Sea. It a very rare and peculiar polyplacophoran species (Callistoplacidae Pilsbry, 1893). Actually, The few known records span a wide Mediterranean range and extend to the neighbouring Atlantic.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 059-066 - MONOGRAPH

    Carlo Smriglio, Paolo Mariottini & Salvatore Giacobbe
    Jujubinus errinae n. sp. (Gastropoda Trochidae) from the Strait of Messina, Mediterranean Sea

    A new species of the gastropod family Trochidae, Jujubinus errinae n. sp., from the Mediterranean Sea is described based on shell characters. The new taxon was compared with the most closely related species showing marked sculpture and from relatively deep water habitat, J. catenatus Ardovini, 2006, J. montagui (Wood, 1828) and J. tumidulus (Aradas, 1846). The species, which is known from the type locality only, the Strait of Messina, might be strictly associated to the endemic hydrocoral Errina aspera (Linnaeus, 1767) beds (Hydrozoa Stylasteridae).

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 067-078 - MONOGRAPH

    Giulia Furfaro & Paolo Mariottini
    Check-list of the Nudibranchs (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the biodiversityhot spot “Scoglio del Corallo” (Argentario promontory, Tuscany)

    The Mediterranean nudibranch (Mollusca Gastropoda) fauna is part of complex communities belonging to the Mediterranean endemic “Coralligenous”. This important ecosystem shows a high species richness and functional diversity with assemblages of species tied together by major trophic and ecological relationships. A first check-list for the biodiversity hot spot “Scoglio del Corallo”, located along the coast of the Argentario promontory (Tuscany, Tyrrhenian Sea) is here reported.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 079-088 - MONOGRAPH

    Marco Passamonti
    Barycypraea teulerei (Cazenavette, 1845) (Gastropoda Cypraeidae): a successful species or an evolutionary dead-end?

    Barycypraea teulerei (Cazenavette, 1845) (Gastropoda Cypraeidae) is an unusual cowrie species, showing remarkable adaptations to an uncommon environment. It lives intertidally on flat sand/mud salt marshes, in a limited range, in Oman. On Masirah Island, humans probably drove it to extinction because of shell collecting. A new population, with a limited range, has recently been discovered, and this article describes observations I made on site in 2014. Evolution shaped this species into a rather specialized and successful life, but has also put it at risk. Barycypraea teulerei is well adapted to survive in its habitat, but at the same time is easily visible and accessible to humans, and this puts it at high risk of extinction. Evolution is indeed a blind watchmaker that ‘has no vision, no foresight, no sight at all’. And B. teulerei was just plain unlucky to encounter our species on its journey on our planet.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 089-092 - MONOGRAPH

    Bruno Fumanti & Italo Nofroni
    Contribution to the knowledge of the molluscan thanatocoenosis of Zannone Island (Pontine Archipelago, Latium, Italy). Additional reports

    In this second paper concerning the molluscan fauna of Zannone Island (Pontine Archipelago, Italy) one sediment sample collected by scuba diving at a depth of 36.5 meters at SW of the isle was investigated. Altogether, 47 taxa, not yet reported for Zannone, were identified, bringing the total number of the molluscan thanatocoenosis of the island at 327 taxa.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 093-102 - MONOGRAPH

    Alessandro Hallgass & Angelo Vannozzi
    Terrestrial gastropods (Mollusca Gastropoda) from Lepini Mountains (Latium, Italy): a first contribution

    Lepini Mountains are a calcareous massif that forms the southern pre-Apennines of Latium (Italy), reaching a maximum altitude of 1536 m. Notwithstanding their central position and the low height reached, the malacofauna of Lepini Mountains has been long neglected and species composition was never reported so far. In this contribution, a preliminary investigation of the terrestrial gastropods (Mollusca Gastropoda) occurring in the Lepini Mountains is reported. At least 43 species are recorded. Several species already reported from Central Apennines occur. The most remarkable findings include a hitherto unrecorded population of Medora sp. (Clausiliidae) and the occurrence of two distinct forms ascribable to Jaminia quadridens s.l.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 103-115 - MONOGRAPH

    Francesco Pusateri, Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli & Stefano Bartolini
    A revision of the Mediterranean Raphitomidae, 3: on the Raphitoma pupoides (Monterosato, 1884) complex, with the description of a new species (Mollusca Gastropoda)

    In the present work we present a complex of species of the family Raphitomidae (Mollusca Gastropoda) comprising three entities: two have multispiral protoconchs, Raphitoma pupoides (Monterosato, 1884), the less known R. radula (Monterosato, 1884) and a new species with paucispiral protoconch.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 7 (1): 117-198 - MONOGRAPH

    Marc G.M. van Roosmalen & Tomas van Roosmalen
    On the origin of allopatric primate species

    Here we present a theory on the origin of allopatric primate species that follows - at least in Neotropical primates - the irreversible trend to albinotic skin and coat color, called “metachromic bleaching”. It explains why primates constitute such an exceptionally diverse, species-rich, and colorful Order in the Class Mammalia. The theory is in tune with the principle of evolutionary change in tegumentary colors called “metachromism”, a hypothesis propounded by the late Philip Hershkovitz. Metachromism holds the evolutionary change in hair, skin, and eye melanins following an orderly and irreversible sequence that ends in loss of pigment becoming albinotic, cream to silvery or white. In about all extant sociable Neo- tropical monkeys we identified an irreversible trend according to which metachromic varieties depart from the saturated eumelanin (agouti, black or blackish brown) archetypic form and then speciate into allopatric taxa following the trend to albinotic skin and coat color. Speciation goes either along the eumelanin pathway (from gray to silvery to cream to white), or the pheomelanin pathway (from red to orange to yellow to white), or a combination of the two. The theory represents a new and original evolutionary concept that seems to act indefinitely in a non-adaptive way in the population dynamics of male-hierarchic societies of all sociable primates that defend a common territory. We have successfully tested the theory in all 19 extant Neotropical monkey genera. Our theory suggests the trend to allopatry among metachromic varieties in a social group or population to be the principal behavioral factor that empowers metachromic processes in sociable Neotropical monkeys. It may well represent the principal mechanism behind speciation, radiation, niche separation, and phylogeography in all sociable primates that hold male-defended territories. We urge field biologists who study primate distributions, demography and phylogeography in the Old World to take our theory to the test in the equally colorful Catarrhini.