Skip to main content

Biodiversity Journal 2019, Monograph: 431-566

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 371-372 - MONOGRAPH
    Alfredo Petralia
    Introduction. Considerations on the 4th International Congress on Biodiversity “Man, Natural Habitats and Euro-Mediterranean Biodiversity”
  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 373-382 - MONOGRAPH

    Marco Masseti
    Terrestrial mammals of the satellite islands of Sardinia (Italy)

    The mammalian fauna of the satellite islands and islets of Sardinia (Italy) is still imperfectly known. Only few data are available for some of them, while several others are still almost regarded as terra incognita. Complete information on the extant non-volant terrestrial mammals is available only for Asinara, Tavolara, and Molara, whereas historical and present data are available on the mammals of San Pietro. Further information on the non-flying taxa occasionally appears in specialised literature. At present, 15 species occur in the circum-Sardinian archipelagos. Only 6 of them, however, have been reported from the largest island, San Pietro, whereas the smaller Asinara hots at least 13 species, excluding local domestic breed such as the dwarf donkey. Data on the distribution of chiropters have been provided by a few studies carried out over time. Of the 21 species of bats found in Sardinia, at least 11 were recorded from the small islands.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 383-388 - MONOGRAPH

    Anna Maria Mannino & Paolo Balistreri
    Effects of Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder (Chlorophyta Caulerpaceae) on marine biodiversity

    The chief purpose of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is biodiversity conservation. The effects that invasive alien species (IAS) have on MPAs are not yet fully known, even though assessing them is fundamental. Effective management plans, indeed, also require knowledge on the distribution, spread dynamics and impact of IAS. We report first observations on the effects of Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder (Chlorophyta Caulerpaceae) on the communities living along the coasts of the Island of Favignana (Egadi Islands MPA, Sicily, Italy). We found that C. cylindracea may have negative effects on the habitat where it settles in two different ways: a) affecting the structure of the native algal community which presents a low diversity, and b) favouring the settlement of other alien species such as Branchiomma bairdi (McIntosh, 1885) (Polychaeta Sabellidae).

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 389-404 - MONOGRAPH

    Giambattista Bello
    The Mediterranean Sepiolidae (Mollusca Cephalopoda) diversity

    Sepiolidae (Mollusca Cephalopoda) is the most diverse cephalopod family in the Mediterranean Sea, where 17 species of this taxon have been identified. In the present review, the updated list of the Mediterranean sepiolids is given along with the species type locality, the first documented record in this basin and the present geographical distribution. The exclusion of Sepiola atlantica and Heteroteuthis atlantis - species that have been reported in the Mediterranean but whose presence is not warranted - from the list is also explained. Moreover, patently erroneous information about the bathymetric and geographical distributions of Sepiola rondeletii is revised. The extreme rarity of Sepiola aurantiaca and the comparatively recent entrance into the Mediterranean and establishment of Stoloteuthis leucoptera are discussed. The genesis of the Mediterranean sepiolid-fauna, in relation to the NE Atlantic fauna, is dealt with and, in particular, the reasons that determined its comparatively broad diversity are examined. They are to be traced back to both the mode of life and reproductive biology of these small-sized cephalopods. In connection with the latter matter, the high degree of endemism in the subfamily Sepiolinae is also explained.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 405-408 - MONOGRAPH

    Danilo Scuderi, Alberto Villari & Massimiliano Angelico
    Massive beaching record along the sandy coast of Catania (E-Sicily) of the rare “mole crab” Albunea carabus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Decapoda Anomura Hippoidea)

    After a winter storm, with sirocco wind, hundreds of specimens of the “mole crab” Albunea carabus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Decapoda Anomura Hippoidea) were beached along the sandy coast of “Playa” Catania (E-Sicily). Even though this species was previously recorded in some scattered localities of the Mediterranean, among which a couple were found in Sicily, the present record appears relevant on account of the massive finding of specimens, which is a quite rare event according to literature data. Considerations on the reasons of this wide beaching complete the present note.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 409-414 - MONOGRAPH

    Danilo Scuderi, Alberto Villari & Alfio Viola
    New taxonomical and biological observations on Jujubinus seguenzae Ghisotti et Melone, 1975 (Gastropoda Vetigastropoda Trochidae)

    The study of numerous shells in the collection of the Authors and the finding of new material, among which a single living specimen, some kilometers South to the known geographical area of distribution, allowed us a better accurate morphological study of the shell, the protoconch shape and sculpture and the anatomy and color pattern of the external soft parts. Thus new data allowed to enlarge its geographical distribution and the current taxonomical status of the species. Comparisons with shell and soft parts of similar congeners are made. In particular, differences between Jujubinus seguenzae Ghisotti et Melone, 1975 and the main “morphs” of J. striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda Vetigastropoda Trochidae) will be underlined and the possibility that this last taxon would be better re-defined on the basis of the original materials is discussed.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 415-426 - MONOGRAPH

    Danilo Scuderi, Paolo Balistreri & Alfio Germana
    Are Pinctada radiata (Leach, 1814) and Pinctada fucata (Gould, 1850) (Bivalvia Pteriidae) only synonyms or really different species? The case of some Mediterranean populations

    The earliest reported alien species that entered the Mediterranean after only nine years from the inauguration of the Suez Canal was “Meleagrina” sp., which was subsequently identified as the Gulf pearl-oyster, Pinctada radiata (Leach, 1814) (Bivalvia Pteriidae). Thereafter, an increasing series of records of this species followed. In fact, nowadays it can be considered a well-established species throughout the Mediterranean basin. Since the Red Sea isthmus was considered to be the only natural way of migration, nobody has ever doubted about the name to be assigned to the species, P. radiata, since this was the only Pinctada Röding, 1798 cited in literature for the Mediterranean Sea. Taxonomy of Pinctada is complicated since it lacks precise constant morphological characteristics to distinguish one species from the others. Thus, distribution and specimens location are particularly important since different species mostly live in different geographical areas. Some researchers also used a molecular phylogenetic approach, but the results were discordant. This taxonomic conundrum was re-examined this time applying morphological taxonomy. Increasing vessel traffic and records of vast amounts of Pinctada specimens with morphologically different shells led us to formulate the hypothesis that a separate Pinctada population of different geographical provenance could be present. Specimens were grouped according to the site of collection in the Mediterranean basin. Results from these morphological studies confirmed that, according to us, there were two distinct species, P. radiata and P. fucata (Gould, 1850). Morphological comments and interpretations on the taxonomical status of both species together with auto-ecological notes and a literature review of the molecular phylogenetic studies conducted will be here presented.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 427-430 - MONOGRAPH

    Annalisa Guercio, Santina Di Bella, Giusi Macaluso, Patrizia Di Marco, Maria Piazza, Laura Russotto, Stefano Vullo, Francesco Mira & Giuseppa Purpari
    The Biobank of the “Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale” of Sicily (Italy): an important resource in medical research for safe and quality storage of biological specimens

    The “Biobanca del Mediterraneo” (BBM) has been recently developed at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale (IZS) of Sicily in Palermo, with the aim to collect and store under standard conditions and in a centralized system several types of certified animal and zoonotic biological resources (bacterial and viral strains, parasites, nucleic acids, positive/negative sera, cell cultures, tissues) in accordance to Quality System procedures as regulated by UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025:2018. Presently, biological material from the OIE Reference Laboratories and National Reference Centres of the IZS of Sicily are being stored. Before storage, selection and cataloging of the most representative biological material collected from the Institutes’ laboratories is performed. The “Biobanca del Mediterraneo”, together with four other IZSs (IZS Emilia Romagna e Lombardia, IZS Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d’Aosta, IZS Venezie e IZS Abruzzo e Molise), is part of the Network of “Biobanche Veterinarie”, recognised as "OIE Collaborative Center for Veterinary Biological Biobank" by the “Office International des Epizooties” (OIE). The objectives of the Biobank are the promotion and implementation of collaborations with the scientific community in order to harmonize and standardize bio-banking practices and the development of scientific and technological research to provide services to both the scientific and business world. In fact, collected samples can be used for diagnosis, research, vaccine and drug production, epidemiological studies and other applications.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 431-436 - MONOGRAPH

    Giuseppa Purpari, Giusi Macaluso, Santina Di Bella, Francesco Mira, Vincenza Cannella, Francesca Gucciardi, Alessandra Castiglia, Patrizia Di Marco & Annalisa Guercio
    Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) in Mediterranean wild and farmed fish species: the experience of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale of Sicily (Italy)

    Betanodavirus infection is widespread in a broad spectrum of fish species worldwide. In Italy, it is responsible for outbreaks of Viral Encephalo-Retinopathy (VER) that causes mortality and economic losses in sea fish farming. The infection is also widespread in wildlife, where there are generally no observed clinical manifestations. In this study we report the results obtained from the decennial activity of Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale of Sicily on the research of Betanodavirus infection in wild fish of Mediterranean Sea and in farmed fish. Among the fish species analyzed, Gobius niger (Linnaeus, 1758), Mullus barbatus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Trisopterus minutus capelanus (Lacepède, 1800) were found positive and these could be a reservoir in which the virus can survive for long periods of time. The Betanodavirus isolation from pelagic species such as Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758), Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792), Lepidopus caudatus (Euphrasen, 1788), Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817) resulted interesting because these species could play a more significant epidemiological role, being able to move even at distances.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 437-444 - MONOGRAPH

    Giuseppa Purpari, Santina Di Bella, Francesca Gucciardi, Francesco Mira, Santino Barreca, Laura Di Paola, Giusi Macaluso, Patrizia Di Marco & Annalisa Guercio
    Detection of human enteric viruses in water and shellfish samples collected in Sicily (Italy)

    Enteric viruses are responsible for foodborne and waterborne infections caused by contaminated food products and water, affecting a large number of people. Among the foods an important role is played by shellfish, on the ground that they can be eaten raw or undercooked. Data on food and water viral contamination in South of Italy are scarce and fragmentary. As illnesses result from the failure to control an hazard, the aim of this study was to detect the main pathogenic human enteric viruses in the environment, for evaluating the presence of viral contamination in shellfish and water samples collected in South of Italy (Sicily). The survey was conducted over a period of five years (2012–2016) on 16 water samples (sea waters, pipe waters and torrent water), and 72 fresh and frozen shellfishes from harvesting areas, restaurants, and markets during regional official control or checked at Veterinary Border Inspection Posts. Hepatitis A virus (HAV), GI and GII genogroup Norwalk virus (NoVs), Adenovirus and Rotavirus were detected by nucleic acid amplification (end-point and Real Time PCR/RTPCR) and sequence analysis. The most frequently detected viruses in shellfish were GI NoV (16.7%) and HAV (18.0%). Of the 16 water samples 12.5% were positive for GII NoV and 6.2% for RoV. Molecular surveillance of water and shellfish clearly demonstrated that human pathogenic viruses are widely found in aquatic environments and confirmed the role of bivalve molluscs as main reservoirs.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 445-450 - MONOGRAPH

    Viviana Giangreco, Tiziana Lupo, Ignazio Sammarco, Maurizio Bivona, Gabriele Ciaccio, Luca Sineo & Stefano Reale
    Genetic database development for the characterisation of Sicilian sheep population

    The most representative sheep in Sicily are Belicina, Comisana, Pinzirita, Barbaresca and the crossbred derived sheep from all this species. In this study, the allelic frequencies of the Sicilian sheep population were investigated. It currently represents the best way to determine the genetic identity and/or family even with limited amounts of sample or when the DNA is degraded. The aim of the study was to provide a reference data bank and to evaluate a microsatellite panel for pedigree analysis as suggested by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). There are various studies on European sheep, but few datasets were developed on the population of Sicilian sheep. The reference database will include allele frequencies at each locus and will determine genetic parameters for Sicilian ovine species selection. Our results indicated that Hardy Weinberg equilibrium was not always maintained. These results could be explained by a non-random mating. The database is useful to investigate the relationship, the parentage the meat traceability and in disease control programs. The standardized panels of allele frequencies represent a molecular fingerprinting characterizing the subjects with very high definition level and can be useful to control all the livestock. The parentage identification could be important for the veterinary police to investigate the theft or the animal substitutions in the Sicilian farms.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 451-456 - MONOGRAPH

    Eugenia Oliveri, Davide Vancheri, Andrea Tetamo, Alessia Galanti, Pierluigi Ferina, Mariella Piazza & Stefano Reale
    Creation of a pollen database for Mediterranean flowering plants

    Palynology is the science that studies pollen grains (size, morphology, structure, function, ornamentation, physical and chemical properties), the carriers that transport the male gametes to the pistil (more precisely to the stigma) allowing the fertilization of the eggs. In seed plants pollens represent an extra generation (haploid generation), the widely reduced male gametophyte. During the pollen release phase, the pollen grains separate completely from the plant (diploid generation, or sporophyte) in an attempt to reach the female flower to allow the release of genetic material and, therefore, the fertilization of the egg. Pollens possess many varieties of shapes, sizes, designs, ornamentations, openings with variable shapes and numbers that can be observed by optical microscopy and that have a high systematic value. Each botanical species has pollens with unique characteristics that allow their identification. Palynology is widely used as an extremely important tool in various types of studies and investigations, such as paleobotany, forensic investigations, melissopalynology, studies on the biodiversity of precise geographical areas, identification of cases of introduction of non-native species and identification of hybridization between species. For these reasons the creation of a pollen database could be a particularly efficient and useful tool.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 457-461 - MONOGRAPH

    Maria Flaminia Persichetti, Viviana Giangreco, Antonio Gentile, Tiziana Lupo, Gabriele Ciaccio & Santo Caracappa
    Molecular barcoding applied to the Mediterranean turtles biological matrices (Reptilia Cheloniidae)

    Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) together with Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758) is the most representative Cheloniidae species in the Mediterranean basin. Currently, at the National Reference Centre in the “Istituto Zooprofilattico” of Sicily (Italy), damaged subjects are rehabilitated before they are released again. Clinical, physiological and molecular parameters were collected from each subject. We analysed 46 turtles which samples were collected. Species specific Cytochrome oxidase I sequences for the identification of marine turtle species were obtained. Barcoding is a new tool of classical taxonomy that allows the characterisation of living species and the differentiation of very morphologically similar species. It is a practical tool that can be used in cases of damaged samples and is also useful for taxonomical characterisation of specimen at immature development stages. In our region, in the centre of the Mediterranean area, we represent a reference centre for injured animals both stranded on the beach and captured in offshore.Turtles caught in fishing lines generally retain the fishing hooks in their throat or oesophagus, as visible by X-ray investigations. After the cure and samples collection, the animals are released into the sea. The polymorphisms could be related to the geographical distance of the turtles following different routes during their life. The large-scale sequencing of a single or few genes in taxonomic studies, denominated by species barcoding, aims at offering a practical method for species identification, as well as for providing insights into the evolutionary diversification of life.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 463-464 - MONOGRAPH

    Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Antonello Cicero, Valentina Cumbo, Francesca Ornella Assiria, Giuseppe Giusto, Andrea Macaluso, Barbara Randisi, Francesco Giuseppe Galluzzo, Michele Chetta, Gaetano Cammilleri, Rosaria Collura, Stefania Graci, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Antonio Vella & Vincenzo Ferrantelli
    Investigation on the presence of Dioxins in the Sicilian Sheep’s milk

    Our studies were conducted in 2016 and several sicilian sheep farms were involved. The goal of this research was to evaluate the possible use of sheep as a “sentinel” body to be used as a biological indicator for environmental biomonitoring of dioxins. For the determination of dioxins in sheep’s milk was used a method on high-resolution gas chromatography along with a high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) in order to evaluate the existence of dioxins with concentrations exceeding the limits imposed by the EC Regulation 1881/2006. A total of 200 samples were analyzed, of which 14 samples exceeded the limits imposed by the EC Regulation 1881/2006: 3.0 pg/g fat sum of dioxins (WHO.PCDD/F-TEQ). It is conceivable that the proximity to high anthropization areas and industrialization, may have a positive influence on the propagation of dioxins in the environment having been detected values exceeding the allowed limit. The samples with low dioxin concentrations were analyzed, with values not exceeding the prescribed limit.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 465-468 - MONOGRAPH

    Stefania Graci, Rosaria Collura, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Antonella Costa, Gaetano Cammilleri, Valentina Cumbo, Giuseppe Giangrosso, Michele Chetta, Antonello Cicero, Antonio Vella, Andrea Macaluso & Vincenzo Ferrantelli
    Detection of Anisakidae larvae in fish products commercialized in Sicily

    In this work a total of 1331 fish samples belonging to 15 species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Alaccia aurita, Loligo vulgaris, Trigla lyra, Conger conger, Merluccius merluccius, Zeus faber, Lophius piscatorius, Sardina pilchardus, Lepidopus caudatus, Scorpaena scrofa, Scomber scombrus, Trachurus trachurus, Todarodes sagittatus, Trachinus draco) from Sicilian commercialized in Sicily (FAO 37, FAO 37.1.3, FAO 37.1.1, FAO 37.2.2, FAO 37.3, FAO27, FAO 41, FAO87), were examined for the detection of Anisakidae larvae and molecular identification. The fish samples were examined for the research of nematodes by visual inspection and digestion method according to the EC Regulation 2075/2005. Detected larvae were subjected to morphological identification through the optical microscopy. Subsequently, the DNA was extracted and the molecular identification of the larvae was conducted by RFLP-PCR of the nuclear ITS region (ITS-1, ITS-2 and 5.8 S subunit). The polymerase chain reactions targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (cox2) was performed and subjected to sequence reaction. A number of 370 larvae have been identified at species level, of which 330 belong to the Anisakis pegreffii, 23 to the Anisakis simplex sensu strictu, 6 to the recombinant genotype Anisakis pegreffii/simplex s. s., 1 to Anisakis physeteris and 10 to Hysterothylacium fabri. The data obtained provide interesting reflections on the presence of parasites belonging to the Anisakidae family in fishery products marketed in the Sicilian territory. These findings are an excellent tool for assessing and preventing possible risks due to the consumption of these products.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 469-470 - MONOGRAPH

    Luigi Maria Mammina, Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Claudio Fiorista, Pietro Sposito, Innocenzo Ezio Giangrosso, Valentina Cumbo, Michele Chetta, Andrea Macaluso, Gaetano Cammilleri, Rosaria Collura, Stefania Graci, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Antonio Vella & Vincenzo Ferrantelli
    Sulphite’s determination of Mediterranean Red Shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea), in ionic chromatografy

    In the red shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea), sulphites are added because they block the activity of an enzymatic complex responsible of shrimp’s browing and maintain the aesthetic and commercial characteristics. An ionic chromatography after rapid distillation method was carried out for the quantitative determination of sulfites in food products. On 100 samples, only 0.7% were below the detection limit, 12.7% were above the limit allowed by law, 86.6% of samples were below the maximum permitted by law.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 471-473 - MONOGRAPH

    Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Antonello Cicero, Giovanni Lo Cascio, Valentina Cumbo, Francesca Ornella Assiria, Andrea Macaluso, Gaetano Cammilleri, Rosa Filippi, Francesco Giuseppe Galluzzo, Barbara Randisi, Rosaria Collura, Vita Giaccone, Stefania Graci, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Antonio Vella & Vincenzo Ferrantelli
    Use of terrestrial gastropods (Cornu aspersum) as bioindicators of the environmental contamination status of the Sicilian Natural Parks to assess the contamination status of the pastures

    The use of land molluscs in biomonitoring can evidence interactions between the contaminant and the biotic sphere. The concentration of heavy metals were determined by ICP-MS. In areas where anthropic and industrial contamination persist, heavy metal levels were above the quantification limit; sampling in agricultural areas shows lower levels of heavy metals. The same trend of results can be found for the analysis of IPAs. Snails can be considered as bioindicators of pollutants living in close contact with the soil and ingesting plants with a high concentration of contaminants.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 475-478 - MONOGRAPH

    Gaetano Cammilleri, Stefania Graci, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Rosaria Collura, Antonella Costa, Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Francesca Ornella Assiria, Michele Chetta, Innocenzo Ezio Giangrosso1, Francesco Giuseppe Galluzzo, Valentina Cumbo, Antonio Vella, Andrea Pulvirenti & Vincenzo Ferrantelli
    New report of Anikasis larvae from Blunthead Puffer, Sphoeroides pachygaster caught off Strait of Sicily

    Aim of the present paper was to report and identify by morphological and molecular methods the presence of anisakid L3 larvae found in 7 specimens of Sphoeroides pachygaster caught off Strait of Sicily from 2012 and 2015. Nematode larvae (n=9) were collected from three fish samples: the larvae were morphologically identified as belonging to the genus Anisakis Type I and, stored in 70% ethanol, were underwent molecular identification at species level by PCR- RFLP analysis of the rDNA (ITS-1, 5.8S gene, and ITS-2) region. Sequencing of ITS regions and comparison with sequences in GenBank were also performed. The parasites were molecular identified as belonging to A. pegreffii that is the predominant species in Mediterranean Sea. This is a new report of Anisakis sp. in S. pachygaster. The blunthead puffer Sphoeroides pachygaster is a fish species of Atlantic origin: in the last years there are indeed numerous reports of this alien fish species in the Mediterranean included Italian Seas. The presence of the species Anisakis pegreffii may support the hypothesis of complete adaptation of S. pachygaster in the Mediterranean Sea.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 479-480 - MONOGRAPH

    Antonio Vella, Graziella Graci, Francesco Olibrio, Valentina Cumbo, Antonello Cicero, Daniele Di Salvo, Giulia Caracappa & Vincenzo Ferrantelli
    Presence of Ocratoxin (OTA) in wine produced in Sicily (Italy)

    Ocratoxin (OTA) occurs naturally in different foodstuffs, including grapes and their derivatives. OTA is a secondary fungal metabolite produced naturally by Aspergillus and Penicillium species. The purpose of this work was to estimate the occurrence of OTA in wine produced in Sicily to obtain a risk assessment of these substances. A total of 470 wine samples were quantitatively analysed by screening analysis method based on immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) for ochratoxin. Results confirmed the presence of contamination by OTA in only one sample of red wine “Nero D’Avola” from south-oriental Sicily.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 481-484 - MONOGRAPH

    Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Antonello Cicero, Licia Pantano, Giuseppe Giangrosso, Ignazio Munna, Andrea Pulvirenti, Francesca Ornella Assiria, Vincenza Lo Verde, Andrea Macaluso, Gaetano Cammilleri, Valentina Cumbo, Rosaria Collura, Stefania Graci, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Antonio Vella & Vincenzo Ferrantelli
    Evaluation of Histamine level in the Red Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) of the Mediterranean Sea in 2010–2015

    Histamine is a biogenic amine present in fish species associated with a high amount of histidine, and it can cause the ‘scombroid poisoning’. The Commission Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 govern the criteria to analyze histamine in fishery products and specifies that the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the reference method. In this work, 664 samples were presented in the 2010–2015 shine, of which 46 (6.9%) were positive. With Chart 1 it can be noted that the number of samples has increased substantially in recent years (2013–2015) due to intensified official controls. On the contrary, the number of positives has decreased progressively.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 485-488 - MONOGRAPH

    Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Francesca Ornella Assiria, Francesco Giuseppe Galluzzo, Viviana Giangreco, Ilaria Rizzuto, Gaetano Cammilleri, Rosaria Collura, Stefania Graci, Valentina Cumbo, Antonio Spinnato, Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico & Vincenzo Ferrantelli
    Molecular identification of larvae for Anisakidae family reduced in benthic and pelagic fish

    The present work, carried out at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia “A.Mirri”, Department of Food, Laboratory C.Re.NA (National Reference Center for Anisakiasis), aims to identify species of larvae found in different fish species from the pelagic and benthic environment through molecular analysis (PCR, PCR-RFLP and sequencing) and evaluate the possible ecological relationship between parasites and guests in the two different marine environments.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 489-490 - MONOGRAPH

    Claudio Fiorista, Luigi Maria Mammina, Michele Chetta, Pietro Sposito, Antonello Cicero, Innocenzo Ezio Giangrosso, Valentina Cumbo, Francesca Ornella Assiria, Andrea Macaluso, Gaetano Cammilleri, Rosaria Collura, Stefania Graci, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Antonio Vella, Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Francesco Giuseppe Galluzzo, Ilaria Rizzuto, Viviana Giangreco, Giulio Bagnato & Vincenzo Ferrantelli
    Sulphite’s determination in equine meat and its preparations

    Sulphites are antimicrobial and antioxidant substances recognized as additives. Furthermore, these chemicals may reduce the nutritional quality of food by interacting with some vitamins such as nicotinamide, folic acid, thiamine and pyridoxal. An ionic chromatography with conductivity suppressor detector, after rapid distillation method was carried out for the quantitative determination of sulfites in food products. On two hundred samples of equine meat, we revealed that 23% of the analyzed samples are above the limit allowed by law. Sulphites are used illegally with the purpose of obtaining and maintaining the aesthetic and commercial characteristics.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 491-492 - MONOGRAPH

    Giovanni Lo Cascio, Barbara Randisi, Nicola Cicero, Valentina Cumbo, Andrea Pulvirenti, Andrea Macaluso, Michele Chetta, Gaetano Cammilleri, Rosaria Collura, Stefania Graci, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Antonio Vella & Vincenzo Ferrantelli
    Determination of Chlorpyriphos in Sicilian peaches by Gascromatography-MSMS method coupled with quechers sample preparation procedure preparation

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a number of pests including insects and worms. It is considered moderately hazardous to humans by the World Health Organization and is harmful for these classes of animals. Gas chromatography tandem mass mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the quantification and confirmation of Chlorpyrifos pesticide residues in peaches. The analysis carried out on peach samples confirmed that chlorpyrifos are widely used in Sicilian territory so that 34 percent of the samples were contaminated by the pesticide.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 493-494 - MONOGRAPH

    Vita Giaccone, Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Licia Pantano, Gaetano Cammilleri, Valentina Cumbo, Antonio Vella, Francesco Giuseppe Galluzzo, Ilaria Rizzuto, Barbara Randisi, Giulio Bagnato, Andrea Pulvirenti & Andrea Macaluso
    First report on the presence of Alloxan in Bleached Flour by LC-MS/MS Method

    Alloxan is a ketone with a low molecular weight and neutral functional groups. In this work the presence of Alloxan in bread, pastry and cake bleached flour was investigate in order to verify possible risk for consumers related to the use of chemicals for flour bleaching.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 495-496 - MONOGRAPH

    Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Antonella Costa, Stefania Graci, Gaetano Cammilleri, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Rosaria Collura, Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Valentina Cumbo, Francesca Ornella Assiria, Michele Chetta, Andrea Macaluso & Antonio Vella
    Impact of the “Anisakis C.Re.N.A.” APP

    Anisakiasis is a zoonotical disease provoked by the nematodes belonged to the Anisakidae family. The trend of Anisakiasis cases increases continously, therefore a constant awareness of this topic is essential for the consumers' protection. An application for smartphones was carried out by the National Centre for Anisakiasis for this purpose. This work aimed at evaluate the impact of “Anisakis CReNA” app for consumers by the implementation of a survey. The results obtained revealed that the app developed has reached the goal established giving easy to understand and easy to consult information for the protection of consumers regarding the risks related to these parasites.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 497-498 - MONOGRAPH

    Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Antonello Cicero, Ladislao La Scala, Innocenzo Ezio Giangrosso, Ignazio Munna, Antonella Amato, Francesca Ornella Assiria, Vincenza Lo Verde, Andrea Macaluso, Gaetano Cammilleri, Rosaria Collura, Stefania Graci, Valentina Cumbo, Francesco Giuseppe Galluzzo, Giulia Caracappa, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Antonio Vella & Vincenzo Ferrantelli
    Heavy metal toxicity and food contamination: lead, cadmium, and mercury determination on fish matrices from the FAO 37.2.2

    Heavy metals can be essential, benefits and toxic. The 246 samples of swordfish, tuna and bivalve molluscs examined coming from the request of private individuals and at the request of the Control Authorities in order to carry out routine checks or inspections of food safety. All the elements were determined by an ICP-MS. The level of contamination of heavy metals in the fish species sampled in the Mediterranean Sea has been investigated as an indicator of water pollution. This study highlighted the presence of lead and cadmium, especially in swordfish samples, but all within the limits of law; mercury is absent in all samples. Top predators have higher levels of heavy metals than other species due to the bioaccumulation phenomenon.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 499-516 - MONOGRAPH

    Agatino Reitano, Fabio Liberto, Maria Stella Colomba, Ignazio Sparacio & Rossana Sanfilippo
    Notes on some interesting species of Mollusca Gastropoda of the Monterosato collection preserved into the “Museo di Scienze della Terra” of Catania (Italy)

    In the year 2008, the then named Department of Geological Sciences of the University of Catania came into possession of malacological material belonging to Tommaso Di Maria, baron of Allery and marquis of Monterosato (Palermo, 1841–1927), an important malacologist specialized in the systematics of continental and mostly marine and fossil molluscs from the Mediterranean Sea and north east Atlantic. The small collection also includes interesting lots of shells belonging to other Sicilian naturalists such as the abbot Giuseppe Brugnone (Caltanissetta, Italy) and Pietro Calcara (Palermo, Italy). In this malacological collection, some interesting taxa little known and difficult taxonomic interpretations have been found. The rediscovery of the Aghatina mandralisci Calcara, 1840 and Lachesis retifera Brugnone, 1880 probable lectotypes, and the taxonomy of Helix schwerzenbachi Calcara, 1841 and Helix cupani Calcara, 1842 (syntypes) are discussed. Particularly, A. mandralisci is proposed as a synonym of Allopeas gracilis (Hutton, 1834), H. schwerzenbachi is proposed as a synonym of Punctum (Punctum) pygmaeum (Draparnaud, 1801), and H. cupani is proposed as a synonym of Xerotricha conspurcata (Draparnaud, 1801).

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 517-526 - MONOGRAPH

    Maria Stella Colomba, Armando Gregorini, David P. Cilia, Fabio Liberto, Agatino Reitano & Ignazio Sparacio
    Molecular studies on the genus Muticaria Lindholm, 1925 (Pulmonata, Clausiliidae) from the Maltese Islands

    The present study has been carried out with focus on Muticaria macrostoma group from the Maltese Islands to characterize and define, from a molecular standpoint, their identity and relationships with topotypical Sicilian Muticaria (i.e. M. syracusana, M. neuteboomi, M. cyclopica and M. brancatoi). Molecular study included amplification of 16S rDNA (ca. 300 bp) and COI (ca. 700 bp) gene partial sequences which were used for single and combined gene analysis by Bayesian Inference to achieve the phylogenetic reconstructions with the highest posterior probabilities. Obtained results showed that, within M. macrostoma group, the taxa mamotica and oscitans can be elevated to the specific rank, thus bringing to three the Maltese Muticaria species, i.e. M. macrostoma, M. mamotica, and M. oscitans; whereas scalaris may be considered a subspecies, or even a synonim. Present findings confirmed the validity of the Sicilian species M. syracusana, M. neuteboomi, M. cyclopica and M. brancatoi. Furthermore, the populations of the Sicilian and Maltese Muticaria seem to belong to two different levels of differentiation. Finally, we have also examined some Lampedusa populations but the position of this genus still remains to be clarified. In particular, it is confirmed that Lampedusa and Muticaria are different genera, but at present, the relations within the Lampedusa group need further studies to be analysed in details.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 527-546 - MONOGRAPH

    Fabio Liberto, Maria Stella Colomba & Ignazio Sparacio
    New data on the genus Albinaria (Pulmonata Clausiliidae) from the Astypalea Island and neighboring islets (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece)

    In this work, the authors investigated the genus Albinaria Vest, 1867 (Pulmonata Clausiliidae) from the Astypalea Island and the nearby islets of Ofidoussa and Kounoupi (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The two endemic subspecies known, Albinaria (Albinaria) brevicollis astropalia (O. Boettger, 1883) and A. (A.) brevicollis maltezana Nordsieck, 2015 are redescribed and illustrated for shell and genital morphology. Furthermore A. (A.) brevicollis cf. sica Fuchs et Käufel, 1936 is reported for the first time from the north-east Astypalea, and two new subspecies, A. (A.) brevicollis granoi n. ssp. and A. (A.) brevicollis cristinae n. ssp. are here described from North-West Astypalea and Ofidoussa Islet, respectively.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 10 (4): 565-566 - MONOGRAPH
    Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Biodiversity “Man, Natural Habitats and Euro-Mediterranean Biodiversity” - November 17th-19th, 2017 – MALTA, Index