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Biodiversity Journal 2021, 12 (1): 1-274

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0001-0002
    Ingrid N. Viesser.
    Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia Cetacea)
  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0003-0016

    Nour-El Houda Hafsi, Kaouther Hamaidia, Choukri Barour & Noureddine Soltani
    A survey of Culicidae (Insecta Diptera) in some habitats in Souk-Ahras province (Northeast Algeria)

    A survey of immature Culicidae was conducted in diverse habitats of Souk-Ahras province (Northeast Algeria) between December 2018 and November 2019. Altogether, 12,861 specimens were collected and identified. Nineteen species of mosquitoes, belonging to two main subfamilies viz. Culicinae (accounts for 84.21 %) and Anophelinae (as 15.79 %), under 5 genera (Culex, Culiseta, Anopheles, Aedes and Uranotaenia). Among identified species, six were mentioned for the first time in the province of Souk-Ahras. The predominant species of the total mosquito fauna was Cx. pipiens L. with an abundance rate of 69.63 %. Two habitats were characterized by the highest prevalence of 11 species, Taoura (with 1 spp. Anophelinae, 10 spp. Culicinae) and Sedrata (with 11 spp. of Culicinae). However, Souk-Ahras site contained the largest abundance (41.20%) belonging to 6 species. In addition, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes according to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, humidity) was discussed. Data supported by some ecological indices of composition and structure revealed that the diversity level in Souk-Ahras province was between medium and very low compared to a scale varied between 0 and 1 (global Simpson index 0.50). The most diversified site in species was Taoura with the highest Shannon index value (2.11). Since vectors occurrence is constantly changing, it will be suggested that mosquito control should be intensified within other potential breeding sites in northeastern Algeria.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0017-0019

    Luca Bolognin, Enzo Moretto, Umberto Devincenzo & Luis Alessandro Guariento
    First record of Neoscona byzanthina (Pavesi, 1876) (Arachnida Araneae) from Italy

    Neoscona byzanthina (Pavesi, 1876) (Arachnida Araneae Araneidae) is reported for the first time in Italy. Following the original description from Turkey and one report for Greece, the species has long been considered a synonym of Neoscona adianta (Walckenaer, 1802). Recently, it was re-established as a valid name and documented for France and Spain.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0021-0026

    Luca Anselmo
    New distributional data of the protected butterfly Papilio alexanor Esper, 1800 in north-western Italy and some ecological observations (Lepidoptera Papilionidae)

    Data concerning a new population of Papilio alexanor Esper, 1800 (Lepidoptera Papilionidae) observed by the author in north-western Italy is here reported. In summer 2020, seventyfive caterpillars of this rare and emblematic species have been found in the upper Susa Valley (Cottian Alps) on Ptychotis saxifraga, at relatively high altitude. The analysis of the observations carried out on a random sample of host plants suggest similar ecology but delayed phenology, compared to that reported for other Italian populations.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0027-0089

    Bruno Massa, Renzo Ientile, Arianna Aradis & Salvatore Surdo
    One hundred and fifty years of ornithology in Sicily, with an unknown manuscript by Joseph Whitaker

    A new complete check-list of Birds of Sicily is presented in this paper, with a comparison with previous lists for a period of one hundred and fifty years. Further, an unknown manuscript by Joseph Whitaker “Birds of Sicily”, dated back to ca. 1920, has been transcribed and is here presented integrally. Thus, lists of birds here presented have been separated as follows: i) Doderlein (1869–1874); ii) Whitaker (1920); iii) Iapichino & Massa (1989), Lo Valvo et al. (1993) iv) Corso (2005), Ientile & Massa (2008); v) 2010–2020: Massa et al. (2015) and personal observations; vi) long-term trend: personal observations. Overall, 437 species are listed. Out of 283 species regularly present in Sicily, over the long period here considered of one hundred and fifty years, 75 (26.5) resulted to maintain stable populations, 35 (12.4%) resulted increasing, 12 (4.2%) very increasing, 75 (26.5%) with declining populations, 34 (12%) with very declining populations and 11 (3.9%) became extinct. Further, 41 species (14.5%) showed a population trend different from the previous ones, that we classified as fluctuating. We discuss about seventy representatives of the previous categories.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0091-0120

    Filippo Rizzo
    The distribution of Pteridophytes (ferns and lycophytes) in Sicily

    In this study, an updated list of Sicilian ferns and lycophytes is presented, with ecological information and an in-depth analysis on provincial distribution. The Pteridophytes present in Sicily are 58 (including species and subspecies), 6 Lycopodiopsida and 52 Polypodiopsida, including 4 allochthonous naturalized taxa (Azolla cristata, Azolla filiculoides, Cyrtomium falcatum and Nephrolepis cordifolia). There are also 4 further uncertain taxa (Asplenium trichomanes subsp. pachyrachis, Dryopteris borreri, Dryopteris cambrensis subsp. insubrica and Polypodium vulgare). The largest family is that of Aspleniaceae, which contains the larger genus Asplenium. With regard to the distribution, the province of Palermo has the largest number of taxa, followed by the provinces of Messina, Catania and Trapani. Overall, the ferns are unevenly distributed, with the Northern provinces having a higher number of taxa.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0121-0124

    Arnold Sciberras & Jeffrey Sciberras
    Flora of some of the satellite islets of Sicily, Pantelleria, Lampedusa and Ustica (Italy)

    During the last decade, the authors visited several stacks (Faraglione) which are satellites islets around the main circum-sicilian islands. Most of these stacks are inaccessible to the general public due to their geographical and topographical positions/inclinations. Literature is often scarce or non-existent. The current work provides a preliminary data on the floral diversity recorded during the brief expeditions between the years 2008–2018. All of these islets were observed once, so this study does not reflect all of the possibly existing species of these islets. The current study caters the Faraglione di Colombara of Ustica, Isola dei Conigli, Scoglio del Sacramento and Scoglio di Faraglione of Lampedusa, Faraglione di Tracino and Faraglione di Ficaria/indietro l’isola of Pantelleria. Another islet is the Scoglio dello Zio Gennaro, Taormina, Sicily.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0125-0128

    Antonino Dentici, Paolo Galasso & Antonino Barbera
    First record of Trichoncus aurantiipes Simon, 1884 (Araneae, Linyphiidae) in Italy

    The spider Trichonchus aurantiipes Simon, 1844 (Araneae Linyphiidae), a species never reported before for Italy, was found, sampled and identified in two different Sicilian locations: Ispica, province of Ragusa, in the south-eastern coast of Sicily, and Castelvetrano, province of Trapani, in the north-western side of the region. This record represents a new genus and a new species for Sicily and Italy. Additional notes on the taxonomy, distribution and biology are provided.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0129-0138

    Nouar Belgacem, Hasnaoui Okkacha, Maamar Benchohra & Tir Elhadj
    Inventory, diversity and therapeutic uses of medicinal plants in the Tiaret Mountains (western Algeria)

    This study is devoted to the floristic (systematic, biology, chorology) and therapeutic (treated uses and diseases) analysis of medicinal plants in the Tiaret Mountains (western Algeria). The floristic inventory allowed us to identify 108 medicinal plants belonging to 41 families, including the dominance of the Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae and Orchidaceae with (15.7%, 7.4%, 5.6%, 5.6%) respectively. Also we identified 3 endemic, 4 rare and 8 protected species. The biological spectrum of these species is characterized by a high presence of the Therophytes (38%) followed by the Phanerophytes (20.4%). In biogeographical terms, Mediterranean biogeographical species are the most represented and make up more than half of the medicinal flora (52.8%). These plants are mainly used in order of importance in the treatment of the digestive tract, cardiovascular and dermal diseases with percentages of 18.6%, 10.7%, 7.5%.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0139-0145

    Sarra Ghalem, Faiçal Hassani, Sid Ahmed Aouadj & Ibtissam Sarah Bouayed
    Biological, morphological and phytobiogeographic diversity of Malva subovata (DC.) Molero & J.M. Monts. (Malvales Malvaceae) in the Tlemcen region, Algeria

    The vegetation of the region of western Algeria presents a good example of the study of phyto-diversity. The method of floristic analysis is a main element in the knowledge of natural environments and its rich flora. In my two stations, we carried out floristic surveys, these are a set of observations on the environment and on the vegetation. The study presented is only a part of the objectives of the Laboratory of Plant Ecology focused on the floristic diversity of Malva subovata (DC.) Molero & J.M.Monts. (Malvales Malvaceae) on the mastery of the biological, morphological and phytobiogeographic capital of the two stations “Boussdra and Hammam Boughrara” in the Tlemcen region. From the treatment of biodiversity indices and the floristic surveys, we were able to conclude that the study area is undergoing a regressive dynamic of vegetation.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0147-0153

    Francisco de Menezes Cavalcante Sassi, Manolo Fernandes Perez, Marcos Aurélio da Silva, Karine Frehner Kavalco & Rubens Pasa, Can geometric morphometrics work for species clusterization on the armored catfish Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes Loricariidae)?

    Studies with geometric morphometrics are efficient to clusterize and delimitate fish species. The armored catfish family (Loricariidae) is the second with more species and the Hypostomus genus can be highlighted as the most representative. By that, we present a geometric morphometric analysis in seven Hypostomus species from Paranaíba river basin (Brazil), testing which view for this technique were able to clusterize more efficiently the species. We found that lateral, frontal and ventral views were capable to form species-clusters with few overlaps in the PCA analysis. With the dorsal view overlapping all species, except for Hypostomus nigromaculatus, we consider that this view cannot be used for the geometric morphometric analysis. Hypostomus presents a complex taxonomy, with several cryptic species, and geometric morphometrics can be used as a complementary tool on Hypostomus taxonomy. Therefore, further analyses were required to evaluate the contribution of each landmark in species clusterization.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0155-0169

    Hartani Ahmed, Baghdadi Djillali,  Anteur Djamel & Benaradj Abdelkrim
    Detection of urban spot in the plain of Mina (Western Algeria)

    During the last three decades, the plains of the Oued Cheliff watershed, have been affected by the decisions of the State which tried to change its development policy. This has put these plains in a state of transformation, whose rate of population has increased by causing greater worries such as consumption, employment, and housing needs. The latter has affected this environmental space and its agro systems by reducing the area of its most fertile lands and the pollution of the places that use its natural resources. In order to do our studies, we have chosen the Mina plain, which is part of a space that is in full change with regard to its physical environment, its demographic and economic aspect while acting on its agro systems. This study will develop a methodology, based on the integration of satellite images and cartographic data into a geographical information system (SIG) for the identification and mapping of urban extensions on agricultural land in the Mina Plain.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0171-0178

    Fabio Liberto, Mauro GranoCristina Cattaneo & Ignazio Sparacio
    On Deroceras (Deroceras) ikaria P.L. Reischütz, 1983 (Gastropoda Stylommatophora Agriolimacidae) from Ikaria Island (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    This paper shows new morphological data on Deroceras ikaria P.L. Reischütz, 1983 (Gastropoda Stylommatophora Agriolimacidae) an endemic species from Ikaria Island (Aegean Sea, Greece), known only for the type serie. This species is similar to D. samium Rähle, 1983 and more informations for a better understanding of both species are provided.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0179-0194

    Paul Serge Mbenoun Masse, G.L. Mendoua Ebolo, G. Ebangue Titti & R. Mony
    Ant species richness, abundance and functional groups along an elevation gradient in Central Cameroon

    Of all leaf litter-dwelling arthropods, ants are highly diverse, abundant, easy to sample, and thought to be sensitive to environmental changes. In central Africa, ant diversity patterns along the elevational gradients are poorly studied compared to latitudinal gradients. In this study, we evaluated the species richness, abundance and functional groups at Mount Eloundem. Ants were surveyed by pitfall trapping, baiting, Winkler extraction and quadrat sampling from September 2018 to April 2019. A total of 151 morphospecies in 9 sub-families and 42 genera were recorded from all four elevations. Twenty percent of identified species were found to be endemic to the study region while 80% have been introduced to the fauna of Cameroon. The army ant, Dorylus (Anomma) nigricans, was the most abundant ant species (51.46%). Ant richness and abundance were highest at both lower (800 and 900 m) and higher elevational bands (1000 and 1150 m) and lowest at moderate elevational bands (900 and 1000 m). Higher similarity of ant species among elevations indicated low species turnover. Six functional groups were found at different elevations, with the “Opportunists’’ being the most abundant group. Our findings demonstrate the predominance of opportunist, non-native or tramp species and a decline in native ant species along the elevational gradients. This study suggests that the loss of native habitat facilitate the establishment of tramp species, and might lead to homogenisation in ant community composition and functional groups. These results also have implications for management of the low altitude mountains in Central Africa.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0195-0200

    Mezerdi Farid, Farhi Kamilia & Belhamra Mohamed
    Comparison of the reproduction success of the Barbary partridge, Alectoris barbara (Bonnaterre, 1792) (Aves Phasianidae), of the two protected areas in Algeria

    The bioecology of the Barbary partridge, Alectoris barbara (Bonnaterre, 1792) (Aves Phasianidae) remain less known compared to other Phasianidae species because of the paucity of informations and studies about this species. In this research we studied and compared the breeding success of the Barbay partridge in two protected areas in Algeria. The first indication of the monitoring is the search of nests; this aspect shows the dynamism of population in nature. We have opted for the Mayfield method by using a software (J_test) which is a developed program for MS-DOS to esteem the daily survival of nests between two protected areas (Zeralda and Djelfa). Besides, we have adopted the CONTRAST software to esteem the daily survivals over the years for each region. During 3 years of follow-up, we have found that the size of the average egg in the two protected areas: Zeralda and Djelfa vary between 12 and 13.42 egg/nest. During 2012, we noted that the factor of predation has extremely high rates: on both rock areas between 33% and 56%, respectively for Zeralda and Djelfa during the year. The confrontation of the obtained results for the two methods confirms well that the survival in the areas is not influenced by the ecologic factors that characterizes each protected area. Our results leads us towards the hypothesis of a high biological potential allowing partridge populations, in a semi-arid climate, to be able to turn over and compensate a low survival thanks to some adjustments on the populations density. This information concerning our endemic species allows the researchers to put the first pillars of data and information bank of the Barbary partridge in Algeria.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0201-0204

    Armando NappiCristina Cattaneo & Mauro Grano
    A new mammal species from Kasos Island (Dodecanese, Greece): Crocidura suaveolens (Pallas, 1811) (Mammalia Soricomorpha Soricidae)

    The presence of Crocidura suaveolens (Pallas, 1811) (Mammalia Soricomorpha Soricidae) is reported for the first time on the island of Kasos (Aegean Sea). The distribution of shrews on the islands raises interesting biogeographical questions. On the basis of a recent research carried out by analysing mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, around the Mediterranean basin, the insular occurrence of C. suaveolens is a result of Pleistocene survivors as well as human introductions.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0205-0211

    Paolo Galasso, Elena Amore, Renzo Ientile  & Giovanni Signorello
    Odonata checklist of Nature Reserve “Complesso Speleologico Villasmundo - S. Alfio” (Sicily, Italy)

    From March to September 2018 and 2019, a first monitoring of Odonata promoted by CUTGANA was conducted inside the Nature Reserve named “Complesso Speleologico Villasmundo - S. Alfio”, in Melilli (Syracuse), in south-eastern Sicily. A total of 18 different species were recorded, 6 belonging to the Zygoptera suborder and 12 to the Anisoptera suborder, including Onychogomphus uncatus and Libellula fulva. Some information on uncommon species recorded in the neighbouring areas are also reported.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0213-0224

    Djamel Eddine Bekada, Ahmed Mohammed Ali Bekada , Naïma Settache, Fatima Zohra Bensadoun,Ibtissem Takarli, Djamel Ait Saada, Abed Arabi, Abdelkader Merahi, Mebrouk Kihal & Miloud Heddadji
    Microbiological Study in the case of Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    The present study focused on the isolation and identification of the intestinal bacterial ecosystem involved in Crohn’s disease and Hemorrhagic ulcerative colitis. The patients were male and female with an age range of 18 to 60 years. The isolation carried out after grinding the different biopsies collected by means of low endoscopy, on specific selective culture media, made it possible to select a set of bacteria belonging to the intestinal ecosystem. The data were identified phenotypically through the use of biochemical tests, the various API galleries. On the other hand, the anatomopathological study made it possible to pose and confirm the different diagnoses of the pathologies corresponding to our research study. During Gram staining microscopic observation, in the case of Crohn’s disease and Hemorrhagic ulcerative colitis, the identification is mainly represented by the Gram-positive bacilli identified as Clostridium difficile and Bacillus subtilus. These bacterial strains secrete toxins capable of causing an inflammatory state in the intestinal mucosa and thus inducing their pathogenic powers which can cause an immune disorder in these patients. Nevertheless, the Bacillus subtilus strain presents itself as an agent which can induce a defense against the aggressiveness of pathogenic bacteria.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0225-0228

    Andrea Nappo, Daniel Pellegrini & Attilio Pagli
    First record of Calliostoma lusitanicum F. Nordsieck et García-Talavera, 1979 (Gastropoda Calliostomatiidae) in the Mediterranean Sea and remarks on C. alexandrinum Pallary, 1912

    In this work is reported for the first time the presence of Calliostoma lusitanicum F. Nordsieck et García-Talavera, 1979 (Gastropoda Calliostomatiidae) in the Mediterranean Sea. Present sightings widen the known distribution of this species, found in the Madeira Archipelago and Canary Islands. The relationship between C. lusitanicum and C. alexandrinum Pallary, 1912 is discussed.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0229-0230

    John Mulder
    Mass invasion of Elm seed bugs Arocatus melanocephalus (Fabricius, 1798) (Hemiptera Lygaeidae) in apartments in the Netherlands

    Mass invasion of the recently recorded, invasive Elm seed bug Arocatus melanocephalus (Fabricius, 1798) (Hemiptera Lygaeidae) has been registered for the first time in the Netherlands. Possible causes, experienced inconvenience and prevention measures are discussed.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0231-0234

    Amina Benmaissa & Hassiba Stambouli-Meziane
    Systematic of the genus Phillyrea L. (Lamiales Oleaceae) in the Tlemcen Region (Western Algeria)

    The aim of our work is to contribute to improving the systematics and faunistic of the genus Phillyrea L. (Lamiales Oleaceae) in the Tlemcen region (Western Algeria). In October 2016, Phillyrea leaves and fruits were collected from different plants at each of the following stations: Beni-Saf, Zarifet and Sidi Yahia. The plant material was prepared in a herbarium and then taken to the laboratory for identification and study also with the help of the known bibliography. Following most of the authors, the samples were attributed to P. angustifolia L. and P. latifolia L. We considered as present in the study area also specimens attributable to the “media” taxon almost always considered synonymous of P. latifolia.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0235-0244

    Franck Boyer & Walter Renda
    Revision of Gibberula lucia Jousseaume, 1877 and report of an allopatric sibling form (Gastropoda Cystiscidae)

    Gibberula lucia Jousseaume, 1877 (Gastropoda Cystiscidae) is revised, and the best conserved among the three MNHN syntypes is selected as lectotype. The typical form of G. lucia shows an original shell decoration made of continuous wavy axial lines. The distribution of this form seems to be restricted to the northwestern group and to the southern group of the Cape Verde Archipelago. A population showing interrupted axial lines is reported from Boa Vista and it looks as being perfectly similar to populations ranging off the Cap Vert Peninsula (Senegal) and off Fuerteventura (Eastern Canary Archipelago). Due to uncomplete documentation, the precise taxonomic status of this distinctive phena cannot be stated, at present, but despite its fragmented distribution, the concerned populations are united under the provisional term of G. cf. lucia, in the wait of further data.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0245-0254

    Andrea Lombardo & Giuliana Marletta
    Observations on the dorid Peltodoris atromaculata Bergh, 1880 (Gastropoda Nudibranchia) along the central-eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea

    In the present study the seasonality and some biological aspects of the dorid nudibranch Peltodoris atromaculata Bergh, 1880 (Gastropoda Nudibranchia) have been investigated. In fact, in literature there is no accordance among authors regarding its life span: annual for some authors or biennial for others. However, there is a general agreement concerning its wide breeding-spawning period. Throughout four years of study (from 2017 to 2020), through underwater visual census in three areas located along the central-eastern coasts of Sicily (Italy), data on P. atromaculata’s populations were collected. The only site that allowed to develop a hypothesis on seasonality of this species was Catania. In fact, in this site it was observed that P. atromaculata is present all year round with a life span of a year and few months, with different generations which live simultaneously throughout the year. The reproductive period of this species is from February to August and population peaks are from May to September and from September to February. Moreover, it was demonstrated that this species, despite showing different defensive strategies, can be frequently attacked by predators. Therefore, the most typical scars and injuries encountered, have been described.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0255-0260

    Faiza Oudjane
    Parasitic infection by the nematode Anguillicola crassus (Kuwahara, Niimi et Itagaki, 1974) in the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces Anguilliidae) of Lake Oubeïra (eastern Algeria)

    In the course of our work on the European Eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) from the El Kala wetland (RAMSAR, 2000), we found that this species is of great biological and socio-economic importance. Unfortunately, this extraordinary global genetic heritage, long considered as a robust species with low vulnerability, is in constant decline throughout its range and made us aware of the fragility of the species. Therefore, we were interested in the impact of parasitism caused by the nematode ectoparasite Anguillicola crassus on the overweight of this species populating Lake Oubeïra (eastern Algeria), and those on a total of 724 eels sampled, with a total length between 10.5 and 89.9 cm, and a total weight between 17 and 1470 g. The epidemiological study reveals that eels suffer from several parasitic attacks including infection of the swim bladder by the nematode Anguillicola crassus. The presence of the eel in Lake Oubeïra throughout the year increases the rate of infection. Anguillicolosis is important in large individuals and in different sexes and stages of silvering.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0261-0264

    Kaddouri Mohamed Amine, Slimani Sabrina, Dahmani Lydia, Kaci Zakia, Aroua Khaoula, Chebli Abderahmane & Biche Mohamed
    Abundance fluctuation of Spirura rytipleurites seurati Chabaud, 1954 (Nematoda Spiruridae) parasite of Desert Hedgehog Hemiechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg, 1833) (Insectivora Erinaceidae) in the Region of Merigha (Laghouat, Algeria)

    The study has been undertaken for three consecutive years on the diet of the desert hedgehog Hemiechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg, 1833) (Insectivora Erinaceidae) in Merigha (Laghouat). It highlighted a great abundance of a parasitic nematode of the digestive tube: Spirura rytipleurites seurati Chabaud, 1954. The helminths are sparsely abundant in the droppings in April; while their numbers increase until June-July, then decrease drastically in August. They increase again and reach a second abundance peak in October. The droppings infestation rate varies in the same way, where these variations are interpreted in relation to the parasite cycle and to the variations of the hedgehog diet’s composition.

  • Biodiversity Journal, 12 (1): 0265-0272

    Nadia Khater, Amira Benahmed, Nesrine Zereg & Khaoula Cherouana
    Callogenesis induction of Ilex aquifolium L. (Aquifoliales Aquifoliaceae)

    English Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) belongs to the family Aquifoliaceae and is one of the native and rare species in Algeria which has many benefits. The natural cultivation of this important ecological species presents many problems and takes a long time because of the various factors that increase the risk of extinction. In this research callogenesis was studied in order to induce better callus and to study the effect of Murashige and Skoog (MS), Woody Plant Medium (WPM) and various combinations and concentrations of growth regulators using young leaves as explants. Callus induction was successfully performed in WPM and MS culture media at high rates and with an earlier response on WPM medium. The maximum callus percentage (100%) was obtained on WPM medium supplemented with the combination of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) as well as on MS medium supplemented with BAP and 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D). The best mean callus surface area (151.77 mm2) was obtained in WPM medium with (1 mg.L-1of BAP+ 2 mg.L-1 NAA). The addition of (2 mg.L-1 BAP and 4 mg.L-1 NAA) to the MS medium also produced a high mean callus surface area of 82.95 mm2. The callus texture was compact and had three types of color: white, brown and greenish. The results of this study made it possible for the first time to develop an effective new alternative method for callus induction of I. aquifolium.